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Fig. 1. Standard dimorphic or trimorphic reproductive cycle in benthic, medium- to large-sized foraminifera according to Goldstein, 1999. Schizogeny, eventually repeated several times, may be widespread in larger foraminifera from oligotrophic habitats. Planktic foraminifera seem to have no dimorphic life cycle. Life cycles are linked in various ways to seasonal cycles. Example: Heterostegina depressa d'Orbigny, equatorial sections, Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea (from Hottinger, 1977); (Hottinger, 2006; fig. 5 [1] CC/BY-NC-SA)


  • according to Hottinger (2006):

SCHIZONT - apogamic offspring of an agamont reproducing either by another apogamous nuclear division and cytotomy (i.e. by distributing the mother protoplasm among the offspring) or undergoing meiosis. Because the foraminiferal schizonts are produced by cytotomy, they are megalospheric (A - forms).

See also


Goldstein (1999), Foraminifera, a biological overview. In: SEN GUPTA B.K. (ed.), Modern Foraminifera, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dortrecht, p. 37-55.

Hottinger (1977), Foraminifères operculiniformes, Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, (Série C, Sciences de la terre), t. XL, 159 p. + 66 pls.

Hottinger (2006), Illustrated glossary of terms used in foraminiferal research. Carnets de Géologie, Memoir 2, ISSN 1634-0744

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