RECENT PUBLICATIONS ON FORAMINIFERA 2011 (4)
INTERCELLULAR MINERAL GRAINS IN THE XENOPHYOPHORE
Xenophyophores, a group of large agglutinated foraminifera, are characterised by the presence of numerous intracellular barite grains, termed granellae, the function and origin of which is unclear. The recently described xenophyophore Nazareammina tenera Gooday, Aranda da Silva, Pawlowski, 2011, from abyssal depth (4300 m) in the Nazaré Canyon contains an unusually dense concentration of mineral grains in its cytoplasm. Uniquely among known xenophyophores, the intracellular grains in this species comprise a variety of different mineral types in addition to barite. They exhibit a wide range of morphologies and energy dispersive X-ray analysis indicated that they include Ti-bearing minerals, many of them rod-shaped (probably rutile), as well as those containing Fe and Ti (possibly ilmenite and anatase), and Al and Si (probably clay minerals). While the function of intracellular particles in xenophyophores remains unclear, the presence of numerous particles of various types in the cytoplasm suggests that they originate from the sediment. This suite of intracellular mineral grains is completely different from that used to construct the agglutinated test of N. tenera, suggesting that this species is able to discriminate between different kinds of particles. A second xenophyophore species, Reticulammina cerebreformis Gooday, Aranda da Silva, Pawlowski, 2011, which is abundant at the same site as N. tenera, is devoid of intracellular particles, suggesting that their presence in N. tenera is a species-specific characteristic.
Rothe, N., Gooday, A.J., Pearce, R.B., 2011. Intracellular mineral grains in the xenophyophore Nazareammina tenera (Rhizaria, Foraminifera) from the Nazaré Canyon (Portuguese margin, NE Atlantic). Deep Sea Research I, doi:10.1016/j.dsr.2011.09.003
INVASIVE FORAMINIFERAL SPECIES IN SAN FRANCISCO BAY
In this study we compare the foraminifera of modern South San Francisco Bay with fossils from sediments of a previous estuary at 125 ka to provide a basis for interpreting the impact of natural and human change on the benthic ecosystem. All the species found in the Pleistocene sediments of this study are estuarine and/or shallow-water species occurring commonly in San Francisco Bay today, except for the introduced foraminifer Trochammina hadai, a native of Japan that was not found in samples taken in San Francisco Bay before 1983. The biodiversity and species composition of the fossil and modern assemblages before the introduction of T. hadai are nearly identical, suggesting that the environmental and physical changes in the 125,000-year-old and modern estuaries have not had a significant effect on the meiofauna of the Bay. In contrast, modern anthropogenic change in the form of species introductions has impacted the modern foraminiferal assemblage: T. hadai began to dominate the modern assemblage a decade after its introduction. Similar to the recorded impacts of introductions of marine metazoan invertebrate species, the dominance of T. hadai changed species proportions in the post-1980s foraminiferal assemblage, however no known extinctions in the native foraminiferal fauna occurred.
Lesen, A.E., Lipps, J.H., 2011. What have natural and human changes wrought on the foraminifera of San Francisco Bay late Quaternary estuaries?. Quaternary Research 76 (2), 211--219.
RESPONSE OF BENTHIC ASSEMBLAGES TO CONTRASTING ENVIRONMENTS IN NW ATLANTIC
Modern deep-water benthic foraminiferal assemblages in Baffin Bay and the northern Labrador Sea, Western North Atlantic, were sampled from box cores and analyzed to determine assemblage composition. The two marine basins are separated by the shallow waters of Davis Strait. Assemblages of Baffin Bay contained only agglutinated foraminifera, whereas samples from the Labrador Sea contained both calcareous and agglutinated species, which resulted in significantly higher species richness. The absence of benthic calcareous taxa in Baffin Bay is attributed to cold, saline, CO2-rich bottom waters related to the Baffin Bay Bottom Water and the Baffin Bay Atlantic Water. Modern foraminiferal assemblage distribution supports the model of increased organic flux under seasonal open-water conditions that feed a rich agglutinated assemblage, but lead to oxidation of organic matter and increased carbonate dissolution. Deep-water sediments contain ice-rafted coarse-grained components and biogenic elements such as sponge spicules that are heavily used by numerous agglutinated species for test construction. Robust, tubular suspension feeders occupy regions under the influence of bottom currents that deliver nutrients. Although disturbances of the sediment-water interface cannot be excluded with sampled box cores, small-scale patchiness can be confirmed by varying abundances of infaunal taxa. Absolute counts of specimens in subsamples vary significantly, whereas species evenness among subsamples is less variable. These findings call for caution when interpreting lateral faunal changes on the basis of small core samples.
Schöder-Adams, C., Van Rooyen, D., 2011. Response of Recent benthic foraminiferal assemblages to contrasting environments in Baffin Bay and the northern Labrador Sea, northwest Atlantic. Arctic 64 (3), 317--341.
ECOLOGICAL INCUMBENCY IMPEDES STOCHASTIC COMMUNITY ASSEMBLY
Persistence in the structure of ecological communities can be predicted both by deterministic and by stochastic theory. Evaluating ecological patterns against the neutral theory of biodiversity provides an appropriate methodology for differentiating between these alternatives. We traced the history of benthic foraminiferal communities from the Huon Peninsula, Papua New Guinea. From the well-preserved uplifted reef terrace at Bonah River we reconstructed the benthic foraminiferal communities during a 2200-year period (9000–6800 yr B.P.) of reef building during the Holocene transgressive sea-level rise. ...... We compared the community inertia index (CII) computed from the observed species abundances with that predicted from neutral theory. ...... Ecological incumbency of established foraminiferal species likely prevented stochastic increases in both migrant and rare taxa at the Bonah River site. Regardless of the structuring mechanisms, our reconstruction of Holocene foraminiferal assemblages provides historical context for the management and potential restoration of degraded species assemblages.
Reymond, C.E., Bode, M., Renema, W., Pandolfi, J., 2011. Ecological incumbency impedes stochastic community assembly in Holocene foraminifera from the Huon Peninsula, Papua New Guinea. Paleobiology 37 (4), 670--685.
RAPID FAUNAL RESPONSE TO CHANGES OF THE RIVER INFLUENCE (RHÔNE PRODELTA)
In the context of the French research project CHACCRA (Climate and Human-induced Alterations in Carbon Cycling at the River–seA connection), living (rose Bengal-stained) benthic foraminifera were investigated at two stations (24 and 67 m depth) in the Rhône prodelta (NW Mediterranean, Gulf of Lions). The aim of this study was to precise the response of benthic foraminiferal faunas to temporal changes of the Rhône River inputs (e.g. organic and terrigeneous material). Each site was sampled in April 2007, September 2007, May 2008 and December 2008, permitting to observe foraminiferal faunas of the 63–150 and >150 μm size fractions under a wide range of environmental conditions. ...... This study put into evidence the extremely rapid response of benthic foraminiferal faunas to strong variations in environmental conditions, especially close to the river mouth (Station A), response noticeably reduced farther from the mouth (Station N) due to a weaker impact of riverine input.
Goineau, A., Fontanier, C., Jorissen, F., Buscail, R., Kerhervé, P., Cathalot, C., Pruski, A.M., Bourgeois, S., Metzger, E., Legrand, E., Rabouille, C., 2011 . Temporal variability of live (stained) benthic foraminiferal faunas in a river-dominated shelf – faunal response to rapid changes of the river influence (Rhône prodelta, NW Mediterranean). Biogeosciences Discuss 8, 9033-9086.
NON-LETHAL EFFECTS OF OCEAN ACIDIFICATION
We conducted experiments to assess the effect of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations on survival, fitness, shell microfabric and growth of two species of symbiont-bearing coral-reef benthic foraminifera, using pCO2 levels similar to those likely to occur in shallow marine pore waters in the decades ahead. Foraminifera were cultured at constant temperature and controlled pCO2 (385 ppmv, 1000 ppmv, and 2000 ppmv) for six weeks, and total alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon were measured to characterize the carbonate chemistry of the incubations. Foraminiferal survival and cellular energy levels were assessed using Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) analyses, and test microstructure and growth were evaluated using high resolution SEM and image analysis. ...... These non-lethal effects of ocean acidification – reduced growth in A. angulatus, and enhanced dissolution in A. gibbosa – may reflect differences in test mineralogy for the two species; the long-term ecological consequences of these effects are not yet known.
McIntyre-Wressnig, Bernhard, J.M., McCorkle, D.C., Hallock, P., 2011 . Non-lethal effects of ocean acidification on two symbiont-bearing benthic foraminiferal species. Biogeosciences Discuss 8, 9165-9200.
EFFECT OF SEA SURFACE PROPERTIES ON THE MORPHOLOGY AND SIZE OF N. pachyderma
The variability in size and shape of shells of the polar planktonic foraminifer Neogloboquadrina pachyderma have been quantified in 33 recent surface sediment samples throughout the northern Atlantic Ocean and correlated with the properties of the ambient surface waters. The aim of the study was to determine whether any of the morphological features could be used to reconstruct sea surface properties in the polar realm of the North Atlantic, where most paleotemperature proxies appear to fail. The analyses revealed that shell morphology is only weakly controlled by habitat properties, whereas shell size showed a strong correlation with sea surface temperature. ......
Highlights ► shape and size of N. pachyderma in North Atlantic was correlated with sea surface properties ► shell size is significantly correlated with sea surface temperature ► shell size patterns of sinistral specimens in subpolar waters is consistent with them being aberrant N. incompta ► application to sediment cores yields glacial temperatures similar to the present-day
Moller, T., Schulz, H., Kucera, M., 2011 . The effect of sea surface properties on shell morphology and size of the planktonic foraminifer Neogloboquadrina pachyderma in the North Atlantic . Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2011.08.014
The Eighth International Workshop on Agglutinated Foraminifera, organized by the Grzybowski Foundation and the Department of Geology of the Babeș-Bolyai University, continued the tradition of meetings initiated in 1981 and dedicated to the study of recent and fossil agglutinated foraminifera. This volume is a collection of 22 articles highlighting results presented at the workshop. This book will be of interest to any micropaleontologist or geologist working on agglutinated foraminifera from a wide range of geological ages and sedimentary environments. (from the back cover)
Kaminski, M.A., Filipescu, S., (eds), 2011. Proceedings of the Eighth International Workshop on Agglutinated Foraminifera. Grzybowski Foundation Special Publication 16, 359+vi pp. (table of contents)
EVOLUTIONARY CLASSIFICATION OF THE L. CRETACEOUS PLANKTIC FORAMINIFERA WITH ELONGATE CHAMBERS
The foraminiferal assemblages of the Pliensbachian-Toarcian transition at the Ariño Section (Central Sector, Iberian Range) are rich and diversified. A total of 6,389 specimens have been retrieved and 72 taxa identified. The assemblages are dominated in number of specimens and species by the Suborder Lagenina, Superfamily Nodosarioidea, Family Vaginulinidae. Other fossil groups also typical of marine shelf waters were found with the foraminifera in the samples; that is bivalves, brachiopods, bryozooans, crinoids, crabs, echinoids, gastropods, holothurians, ophiuroids, ostracods, serpulids, ammonites and fish teeth. Taphonomic processes were evaluated; infilling and cementation, recrystallization and calcite crusts, and biostratinomic transports are the most common features. Foraminifera are mainly resedimentated, only one single specimen has been found with signals of reelaboration. The stratigraphic range chart of the foraminifera shows that no significant events occurred at the Pliensbachian-Toarcian boundary. The step-wise extinction of typical long-ranging Pliensbachian takes place along the Pliensbachian-Toarcian transition with the highest extinction rate within the Semicelatum Subzone (Tenuicostatum Zone) of the Toarcian. The most significant renewal event also occurs within the Toarcian, in the Elegantulum Subzone (Serpentinum Zone) with the first appearance of the genus Citharina. The acmé of Ammobaculites barrowensis Tappan in the uppermost Semicelatum Subzone can be considered as a regional ecostratigraphic event in the Iberian Range.
Herrero, C., 2011 . Foraminifera from the Pliensbachian–Toarcian boundary at Ariño Section (Teruel, Spain). Revista Española de Micropaleontología 43 (1–2), 1--18.
FORAMINIFERA FROM THE PLIENSBACHIAN-TOARCIAN BOUDARY IN SPAIN
Taxonomic reevaluation of the Late Cretaceous (late Coniacian-Santonian) planktic foraminifera with elongate chambers in the adult stage indicate that this feature was developed in two Directional Lineages (DL) with parallel evolution: Hastigerinoides Brönnimann, 1952 and Eohastigerinella Morozova, 1957. The evolved species of the former lineage present strongly elongate last-formed chambers, resembling tubulospines. Eohastigerinella directional lineage consists of two species, E. subdigitata (Carman, 1929) and E. watersi (Cushman, 1931) of late Coniacian-Santonian and late Santonian age respectively. The end member of the directional lineage Eohastigerinella, E. watersi, has elongate chambers with one bulbous distal projection per chamber. Eohastigerinella evolved probably from the hedbergellid stock.
Georgescu, M.D., 2011 . New data on the evolutionary classification of the Late Cretaceous (late Coniacian-Santonian) planktic foraminifera with elongate chambers. Revista Española de Micropaleontología 43 (1–2), 39--54.
PORE MOUNDS AND PORE MOUND-BASED ORNAMENTATION IN L. CRETACEOUS SERIAL FORAMINIFERA
Pore mounded ornamentation has been reported from Late Cretaceous (Santonian-Maastrichtian) benthic and planktic foraminifera with biserial and/or triserial chamber arrangement. This high resolution SEM/ESEM-based study shows that the pore mounds are morphologically diverse in shape (circular and elliptical) and degree of development (incipient and well-developed). Pore mound distribution patterns show significant variability, with scattered pore mounds observed most often. Pore mounds can fuse to form pore mound-based structures, such as keels [i.e., Pseudouvigerina cristata (Marsson, 1878)] and ornamented platforms [i.e., Trachelinella watersi (Cushman, 1927a)]. A new genus, Elongateporeia, is identified for a group of late Santonian-late Campanian biserial benthics with elongate to slit-like pores ornamented with incipient to well-developed elliptical pore mounds. Three new species are described: Bolivinoides mirabilis, Elongateporeia elongatoporosa and Neobulimina newjerseyensis.
Georgescu, M.D., Arz, J.A., Macauley, R.V., Kukulski, R.B., Arenillas, I., Pérez-Rodríguez, I., 2011 . Late Cretaceous (Santonian-Maastrichtian) serial foraminifera with pore mounds or pore mound-based ornamentation structures. Revista Española de Micropaleontología 43 (1–2), 109--139.
PHOTOSYNTHETIC PLASTICITY OF ENDOSYMBIONTS
...... In this study the photosynthetic plasticity of different endosymbiontic algae found within LBF was investigated using pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometry. ......
Highlights ► Photosynthetic performance of all endosymbionts in Foraminifera is shown for the first time. ► Photosynthetic yields of endosymbiotic algae are similar to their free-living counterparts. ► Photosynthetic yields undergo light-driven fluctuation under experimental light. ► All Foraminifera acclimatize to changing light conditions in the short-term.
Ziegler, M., Uthicke, S., 2011 . Photosynthetic plasticity of endosymbionts in larger benthic coral reef Foraminifera. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 407 (1), 70--80.
ZINC EXPOSURE AND RESPONSE OF SYMBIONT-BEARING FORAMINIFERA
The acute effects of zinc (Zn) were evaluated in the symbiont-bearing foraminifer Amphistegina lessonii from the Fernando de Noronha Archipelago (Northeastern Brazil). Foraminifers were acutely (48 h) exposed to dissolved Zn concentrations ranging from 9.5 to 93.4 μg Zn/l. Endpoints analyzed included mortality, visual alterations (white spots and dark-brown areas in the test), oxidative stress biomarkers (reactive oxygen species generation, lipid peroxidation and total superoxide dismutase activity), and concentration of metallothionein-like proteins in whole individuals after Zn exposure. ......
Highlights ► Zinc exposure caused oxidative stress in the foraminifer Amphistegina lessonii. ► Metal-induced oxidative stress resulted in foraminifer partial bleaching. ► Zinc effects were dependent on both concentration and exposure time.
de Freitas Prazeres, M., Martins, S.E., Bianchini, A., 2011 . Biomarkers response to zinc exposure in the symbiont-bearing foraminifer Amphistegina lessonii (Amphisteginidae, Foraminifera). Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 407 (1), 116--121.
LATE CRETACEOUS BIOEVENTS OF SHALLOW-MARINE CARBONATE PLATFORM IN EGYPT
The first detailed biostratigraphic analyses of the Coniacian–middle Campanian shallow-marine carbonate successions exposed in the Mitla Pass, west central Sinai, Egypt have revealed the stratigraphic distribution of diverse calcareous nannofossil and planktonic foraminiferal species. Thirty-six calcareous nannofossils and thirty-two planktonic foraminifera are identified, indicating a Coniacian to middle Campanian age and four Tethyan planktonic foraminiferal and five calcareous nannofossil zones. A comparison of these bioevents from different palaeolatitudes shows considerable variation in age.
Three sequence boundaries coincident with the Turonian/Coniacian, Coniacian/Santonian and Santonian/Campanian stage boundaries are recognized. A fourth sequence boundary is marked by a major upper Campanian to early Ypresian (early Eocene) unconformity. These sequence boundaries are primarily related to regional tectonism associated with the Syrian Arc Fold System and secondarily to eustatic sea-level fluctuations.
Farouk, S., Faris, M., 2011 . Late Cretaceous calcareous nannofossil and planktonic foraminiferal bioevents of the shallow-marine carbonate platform in the Mitla Pass, west central Sinai, Egypt. Cretaceous Research, doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2011.08.002
CONTROLS ON BORON INCORPORATION IN TESTS OF Orbulina universa
Highlights ► A culture calibration with live Orbulina universa reveals new controls on B/Ca. ► B/Ca in cultured planktic foraminiferal calcite is sensitive to the carbonate system. ► B/Ca is also influenced by salinity and seawater boron concentration. ► We do not detect a significant temperature effect on B/Ca across 17.7–26.5 °C. ► Laser-ablation profiles reveal heterogeneous B/Ca distributions within single shells.
Allen, K.A., Hönisch, B., Eggins, S.M., Yu, J., Spero, H.J., Elderfield, H., 2011 . Controls on boron incorporation in cultured tests of the planktic foraminifer Orbulina universa. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2011.07.010
REWORKED MICROFOSSILS AS A PALEOGEOGRAPHIC TOOL
The abundant occurrence of reworked microfossils within the paleogeographically restricted Upper Rhine Graben of central Europe represents a unique opportunity to investigate their inherent information, allowing new insights into the paleogeographic framework and past sedimentary pathways. In the late Rupelian and early Chattian a transgression-regression cycle linked to the global Ru2–Ru3 sequences affected the entire Upper Rhine Graben basin, leading to the deposition of a thick marine to lacustrine series. The occurrences of abundant reworked planktonic foraminifera are grouped into several events that are linked to intervals of increased clastic input during regressive phases. ......
Pirkenseer, C., Spezzaferri, Berger, J-P., 2011 . Reworked microfossils as a paleogeographic tool. Geology, doi: 10.1130/G32049.1
K-T BOUNDARY IN TURBIDITIC DEPOSITS IDENTIFIED TO THE BED
The Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-T) boundary has been recognized in turbiditic sediments of the Ropianka Formation in the Skole Nappe (Bakowiec section) on the basis of planktonic foraminiferids with an accuracy of 40 cm. Such precise determination of the K-T boundary for the first time in the Carpathians and in turbiditic flysch sediments in general was possible due to the successive occurrence of the Early Paleocene planktonic taxa of the P1 Zone above the latest Maastrichtian Abathomphalus mayaroensis Zone with the Racemiguembelina fructicosa Subzone. The trends in composition of the latest Maastrichtian foraminiferal assemblages are similar to the Gaj section from the adjacent thrust sheet, probably due to the influence of the same paleoenvironmental factors.
Gasinski, M.A., Uchman, A., 2011 . The Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary in turbiditic deposits identified to the bed: a case study from the Skole Nappe (Outer Carpathians, southern Poland). Geologica Carpathica, 62 (4), 333--343.
TEST MORPHOLOGY AND HYDRODYNAMIC BEHAVIOUR
Symbiont-bearing larger benthic foraminifera inhabit the photic zone to provide their endosymbiotic algae with light. Because of the hydrodynamic conditions of shallow water environments, tests of larger foraminifera can be entrained and transported by water motion. To resist water motion, these foraminifera have to build a test able to avoid transport or have to develop special mechanisms to attach themselves to substrate or to hide their test below sediment grains. For those species which resist transport by the construction of hydrodynamic convenient shapes, the calculation of hydrodynamic parameters of their test defines the energetic input they can resist and therefore the scenario where they can live in. Measuring the density, size and shape of every test, combined with experimental data, helps to define the best mathematical approach for the settling velocity and Reynolds number of every shell. The comparison between water motion at the sediment-water interface and the specimen-specific settling velocity helps to calculate the water depths at which, for a certain test type, transport, deposition and accumulation may occur. The results obtained for the investigated taxa show that the mathematical approach gives reliable results and can discriminate the hydrodynamic behaviour of different shapes. Furthermore, the study of the settling velocities, calculated for all the investigated taxa, shows that several species are capable to resist water motion and therefore they appear to be functionally adapted to the hydrodynamic condition of its specific environment.
The same study is not recommended on species which resist water motion by adopting hiding or anchoring strategies to avoid the effect of water motion.
Briguglio, A., Hohenegger, J., 2011 . How to react to shallow water hydrodynamics: The larger benthic foraminifera solution. Marine Micropaleontology, doi:10.1016/j.marmicro.2011.07.004
NOTE ON FLUORESCENT IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION (FISH)
...... The fluorescent in situ hybridization technique (FISH) represents a new and useful approach to identify living cells possessing an active metabolism. Our work is the first test of the suitability of the FISH technique, based on fluorescent probes targeting the 18S rRNA, to detect live benthic foraminifera. The protocol was applied on Ammonia group and Miliolids, as well as on agglutinated polythalamous (i.e., Leptohalysis scottii and Eggerella scabra) and soft-shelled monothalamous (i.e., Psammophaga sp. and saccamminid morphotypes) taxa. The results from FISH analyses were compared with those obtained, on the same specimens assayed with FISH, from microscopic analysis of the cytoplasm colour, presence of pigments and pseudopodial activity. Our results indicate that FISH targets only metabolically active foraminifera, and allows discerning from low to high cellular activity, validating the hypothesis that the intensity of the fluorescent signal emitted by the probe is dependent upon the physiological status of cells. These findings support the usefulness of this molecular approach as a key tool for obtaining information on the physiology of living foraminifera, both in field and experimental settings.
Borrelli, C., Sabbatini, A., Luna, G.M., Nardelli, M.P., Sbaffi, T., Morigi, C., Danovara, R., Negri, A., 2011 . Technical Note: Determination of the metabolically active fraction of benthic foraminifera by means of Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH). Biogeosciences 8, 2075--2088.
DISSOLUTION SUSCEPTIBILITY OF PALEOCENE-EOCENE PLANKTIC FORAMINIFERA
We investigated shell characteristics and differential dissolution susceptibility of planktic foraminiferal species derived from upper Paleocene and lower Eocene deep-sea sequences, Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 865 (Allison Guyot) and Sites 1209B, 1210B and 1212A (Shatsky Rise) in the North Pacific Ocean. The purposes of this study are: 1) assessing the effects of differential dissolution on upper Paleocene-lower Eocene planktic foraminiferal assemblages, at species level and within different biozones, to quantify dissolution susceptibility of genera and species; 2) investigating the differences in shell characteristics; 3) revealing the relationship between shell parameters and dissolution robustness of taxa, and 4) identifying the key shell parameter(s) influencing the dissolution susceptibility of foraminiferal taxa. ...... We propose a formula for calculating the dissolution resistance of taxa based on their wall thickness and size – two key parameters in dissolution resistance of a species. Application of this formula reveals good agreement between the calculated and measured dissolution resistance, indicating its robustness. ...... More generally, a proper assessment of taphonomic alteration by dissolution should be part of every paleoenvironmental reconstruction based on quantitative foraminiferal records.
Nguyen, T.M.P., Petrizzo, M.R., Stassen, P., Speijer, R.P., 2011 . Dissolution susceptibility of Paleocene-Eocene planktic foraminifera: Implications for palaeoceanographic reconstructions. Marine Micropaleontology, doi:10.1016/j.marmicro.2011.07.001
REASSESSING TRANSFER-FUNCTION PERFORMANCE IN SEA-LEVEL RECONSTRUCTION
...... We present surface foraminiferal data from six transects sampled at three sites spanning a large latitudinal range extending from Newfoundland (Canada) to North Carolina (USA). These data demonstrate that significant spatial differences exist within the high-marsh foraminiferal assemblages commonly used to reconstruct past relative sea-level (RSL). We standardise these data to account for inter-site differences in tidal range using several variants of the standardised water level index (SWLI) of Horton et al. (1999b) and show that the best performance is achieved by using the highest occurrence of foraminifera as the upper tidal datum level. ...... we make the following four recommendations for a framework to assist in transfer-function development that will allow better record inter-comparison and minimise the potential for producing precise but ultimately inaccurate reconstructions: ......
Highlights ► High and low-marsh foraminifera assemblages are unique to each site investigated ► Sample elevations are best normalised using the highest occurrence of foraminifera ► Illustrating species (updated) optima simplifies reconstruction interpretation ► It is vital to establish the similarity between modern and fossil assemblages ► Transfer-functions with improved precision are not necessarily more accurate.
Wright, A.J., Edwards, R.J., van de Piassche, O., 2011 . Reassessing transfer-function performance in sea-level reconstruction based on benthic salt-marsh foraminifera from the Atlantic coast of NE North America. Marine Micropaleontology, doi:10.1016/j.marmicro.2011.07.003
THE LAST OCCURENCE OF N. inglei AND MARINE ISOTOPE STAGES
The stratigraphic relationships between the last occurrence (LO) of the planktic foraminiferan Neogloboquadrina inglei in the middle Pleistocene and established marine isotope stages (MIS) was investigated using a 365-m-long sediment core from a continental slope in the northwest Pacific near the Shimokita Peninsula, Japan. Two tephra layers (Shikotsu-Daiichi and Aso-4 tephras) and two nannofossil datum planes (first occurrence of Emiliania huxleyi and LO of Pseudoemiliania lacunosa) were used as age-control points, and the oxygen isotope stratigraphy of Hole C9001C was established by correlating the oxygen isotope values of the benthic foraminiferan Uvigerina akitaensis with the standard oxygen isotope curve LR04. Hole C9001C provides the first continuous, high-sedimentation-rate (20-90 cm/kyr) record from MIS 18 to present in the northwestern Pacific near Japan. The stratigraphic position of the LO of N. inglei is in late MIS 16 or near the MIS 16/15 boundary.
Domitsu, H., Uchida, J., Ogane, K., Dobuchi, N., Sato, T., Ikehara, M., Nishi, H., Shiro, H., Oda, M., 2011. Stratigraphic relationships between the last occurrence of Neogloboquadrina inglei and marine isotope stages in the northwest Pacific, D/V Chikyu Expedition 902, Hole C9001C. Newsletters on Stratigraphy 44 (2), 113--122.
PHYLOGENETIC RELATIONSHIPS AND EVOLUTIONARY HISTORY OF Igorina
...... This study investigates the origin and phylogeny of the genus Igorina, which is characterized by a thick, nonspinose and incrusted wall. Igorina appears in Subzone P3a (early late Paleocene) and disappears in Zone P11 (middle Eocene). ...... the taxonomic identification at species level is affected by several problems, mainly those resulting from poor descriptions and illustrations of the primary type specimens of several species. This study reconstructs the phylogeny and evolution of the igorinids through cladistic analysis by applying the method of parsimony. Phylogenetic relationships of the species assigned to Igorina are determined through stratocladistic analysis by using a data matrix of 23 taxa (including key species of Acarinina), 31 morphological characters (unordered), and a stratigraphic character (ordered) mapping the first occurrence of the taxa under investigation. ...... As the result of our analysis, two new species are formally described as I. praecarinata (= morphotype A) and I. paraspiralis (= morphotypes C, E, and F). Finally, our analysis provides evidence that I. lodoensis, I. broedermanni, and I. anapetes are more closely related to Acarinina than to Igorina and clearly belong to a different lineage.
Soldan, D.M., Petrizzo, M.R., Premoli Silva, I., Cau. A., 2011. Phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history of the Paleogene genus Igorina through pargimony analysis. The Journal of Foraminiferal Research 41 (3), 260--284.
THECAMOEBIANS AS PROXIES OF ECOSYSTEM HEALTH AND RECLAMATION SUCCESS
Thecamoebian (testate amoebae) assemblages in samples collected in August 2007 and June 2008 from Suncor Energy Inc. Constructed Wetlands Test Facility, Fort McMurray, Alberta were found to respond to varying levels of oil sands process-affected water/materials (OSPW/OSPM). ...... The study suggests that thecamoebians are useful environmental proxies capable of gauging the impact of oil sands materials in reclaimed areas and have the potential to monitor the progression of aquatic reclamation initiatives. They also appear to be useful in gauging the success of various reclamation mitigation options, such as fertilization. The addition of nutrients resulted in higher species diversity and greater relative abundance of difflugiid thecamoebians than at a parallel site that had not been fertilized, suggesting a faster improvement in aquatic ecosystem health with nutrient loading. The rapid generation time of these protists, together with their apparent sensitivity to OSPM, make thecamoebians useful biomonitors of the progression of aquatic reclamation in oil sands operations.
Neville, L.A., McCarthy, F.M.G., MacKinnon, M.D., Swindles, G.T., Marlowe, P., 2011. Thecamoebians (testate amoebae) as proxies of ecosystem health and reclamation success in constructed wetlands in the oil sands of Alberta, Canada. The Journal of Foraminiferal Research 41 (3), 230--247.