RECENT PUBLICATIONS ON FORAMINIFERA 2011 (3)
FORAMINIFERAL ECOLOGY AND HABITAT VARIABILITY IN UNDERWATER COASTAL CAVES
Seventy-five surface (<4 cm) sediment samples were collected throughout Green Bay Cave System, Bermuda to investigate foraminiferal ecology and habitat variability in underwater coastal caves. This cave is ideal for studying different cave environments because it consists of an anchia-line cave environment connected to a submarine cave environment. ...... Q-mode cluster analysis on the foraminifera produced a dendrogram that segregates the anchialine and submarine cave environments, and subdivides each environment into distinct habitats consistent with local hydrogeology and sedimentology. ...... These results indicate that coastal caves are partitioned into specific environments that can be further subdivided into habitats by groundwater masses, sediment fluxes (terrestrial versus marine), and groundwater circulation. This implies that that cave foraminifera can be useful paleohydrogeologic, paleoclimatic, and Quaternary sea-level proxies.
van Hengstum, P.J., Scott, D.B., 2011. Ecology of foraminifera and habitat variability in an underwater cave: Distinguishing anchialine versus submarine cave environments. The Journal of Foraminiferal Research 41 (3), 201--229.
"RETARIA" HYPOTHESIS - SISTER RELATIONSHIP OF RADIOLARIA AND FORAMINIFERA
...... genes encoding small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA), large subunit ribosomal RNA (LSU rRNA), actin, α-tubulin, β-tubulin, and heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) were isolated from spumellarian (Larcopyle butschlii) and collodarian species (Collozoum pelagicum, and Sphaerozoum punctatum) of Radiolaria to achieve a better understanding of the evolution of the Radiolaria. Phylogenies based on combined sequences of two genes (SSU rRNA and LSU rRNA), and of three genes (SSU rRNA, LSU rRNA and HSP90) strongly supported the sister relationship of Radiolaria and Foraminifera within the rhizarian lineage. In light of the sister relationship of Radiolaria and Foraminifera, the complex evolution of actin, α-tubulin and β-tubulin in the rhizarian lineage can be reconciled by ancestral gene duplication followed by differential loss of one of the paralogues or lateral gene transfer. Our present findings lend support to the "Retaria" hypothesis uniting these two eukaryotic groups, as originally proposed by Cavalier-Smith (1999).
Ishitani, Y., Ishikawa, S., Inagaki, Y., Tsuchiya, M., Takishita, K., 2011. Multigene phylogenetic analyses including diverse radiolarian species support the "Retaria" hypothesis - the sister relationship of Radiolaria and Foraminifera. Marine Micropaleontology, doi:10.1016/j.marmicro.2011.06.007
EFFECT OF PHOSPHATE CONCENTRATION ON CALCIFICATION RATE
...... Here, size-normalised weights (SNWs) of the planktonic foraminifera Globigerina bulloides, collected from the surface waters of the North Atlantic, are compared with in situ carbonate ion concentrations ([CO32−]), optimum growth conditions (implied from G. bulloides abundances), and nutrient concentrations. Significant positive relationships suggest that phosphate concentration ([PO43−]) has the greatest effect on G. bulloides SNWs, with reduced test masses at higher concentrations (range: 0.04–0.31 μM). [CO32−] appears to have a minor effect over the range of values examined (148–181 μmol kg−1), and no evidence was found for increased SNWs under apparent optimum growth conditions. These findings point to the potential importance of phosphate concentration in determining calcification rates in foraminifera, a factor which has been overlooked by previous studies on these organisms. The confirmation of these results via carefully controlled culture studies is recommended in the future.
Aldridge, D., Beer, C.J., Purdie, D.A., 2011. Calcification in the planktonic foraminifera Globigerina bulloides linked to phosphate concentrations in surface waters of the North Atlantic Ocean. Biogeosciences Discuss 8, 6447--6472.
The FORAM Index: A CASE STUDY FROM THE AEGEAN SEA (GREECE)
The species composition of the epiphytic benthic foraminiferal fauna was compared at two coastal locations in the Aegean Sea. Samples were collected during August 2001 and July 2003 along the southeastern coast of Andros Island at Korthi Gulf, where there are minimal anthropogenic activities, and at Kastro Gulf, with substantial anthropogenic influence. This study represents the first application of the FORAM Index (FI), which is a single-metric index for water quality originally developed for western Atlantic reef foraminiferal assemblages, to Mediterranean assemblages. ...... The results of this study document the sensitivity of benthic foraminiferal assemblages, and particularly A. lobifera populations, to sewage pollution in the Aegean Sea. These observations are consistent with studies from other biogeographic regions where the FORAM Index, which is based upon this genus and associated mixotrophic taxa, has been used as a water-quality indicator. This observation is particularly noteworthy because A. lobifera is an invasive species in the Mediterranean.
Koukousioura, O., Dimiza, M.D., Triantaphyllou, M.V., Hallock, P., 2011. Living benthic foraminifera as an environmental proxy in coastal ecosystems: A case study from the Aegean Sea (Greece, NE. Mediterranean). Journal of Marine System, doi:10.1016/j.jmarsys.2011.06.004
NEW DWAF FROM THE UPPER OLIGOCENE OF OFFSHORE ANGOLA
Seven new species and a new genus of deep-water agglutinated foraminifera (DWAF) are reported from the Upper Oligocene of the Congo submarine canyon area, offshore Angola. The new taxa Ammodiscus kenderi n.sp., Haplophragmoides volati n.sp., Ammobaculites duponti n.sp., Spiropsammia primitiva n.sp, Tetrataxiella subtilissima, n. sp., Discamminoides evolutus, n. sp., and Plectoverneuilinella angolaensis n.gen., n.sp. (belonging to the new family Plectoverneuilinellidae), are described herein. The new species are sometimes common components of a “flysch-type” agglutinated foraminiferal assemblage associated with deep marine clastic sediments.
Cetean, C.G., Kaminski, M.A., 2011. New deep-water agglutinated foraminifera from the Upper Oligocene of offshore Angola. Micropaleontology 57 (3), 255--262.
TAXONOMY, EVOLUTION AND BIOSTRATIGRAPHIC SIGNIFICANCE OF Huberella
The taxonomic reevaluation of the Turonian–Coniacian planktic foraminifer Huberella Georgescu 2007 shows that it consists of three species: H. praehuberi Georgescu 2007, H. huberi Georgescu 2007 and H. yucatanensis – new species. Huberella accommodates a branched lineage, which evolved from the biserial species Planoheterohelix postmoremani Georgescu and Huber 2009. This lineage led to the first development of the backward chamber extensions in the Cretaceous heterohelicids. Huberella huberi is a latest Turonian species which became extinct at the Turonian/Coniacian boundary and can be used in refining the Cretaceous planktic foraminiferal biostratigraphical framework.
Georgescu, M.D., Quinney, A.E., Anderson, K.D., 2011. New data on the taxonomy, evolution and biostratigraphical significance of the Turonian–Coniacian (Late Cretaceous) planktic foraminifer Huberella Georgescu 2007. Micropaleontology 57 (3), 247--254.
PERMIAN-TRIASSIC FORAMINIFERA IN WESTERN SLOVENIA
Foraminifers from the Upper Permian Bellerophon Formation, Permian-Triassic “transitional beds” and lowermost Triassic “streaky limestone member” of the Luka Formation in the Luka dection, western Slovenia are described and illustrated. Four new species of foraminifers are described: Multidiscus zhiriensis, M. dinaridicus and Globivalvulina lukachiensis from the Upper Permian, and Lingulonodosaria slovenica from the lowermost Triassic. ...... The Permian-Triassic boundary interval is represented by carbonate “transitional beds” deposited in a shallow restricted marine environment that contains foraminifers and conodonts. The species “Cornuspira” mahajeri, “Earlandia” gracilis, and “E.” tintinniformis, marking the lower boundary of the Triassic worldwide based on foraminifers, are found both below and above the first appearance of the conodont species Hindeodus parvus in the Luka section. These species appear to be ecological species and their appearance coincides with a stressful shallow water environment. The first interval with nodosariid foraminifers appears 2m above the P/T boundary and a second one is approximately 5m above the boundary. Both of these intervals with nodosariids are within the range of the conodont species H. parvus and within the I. staeschei – I. isarcica conodont Range Zone.
Nestell, G.P., Kolar-Jurkovšek, T., Jurkovšek, B., Aljinovic, D., 2011. Foraminifera from the Permian-Triassic transition in western Slovenia. Micropaleontology 57 (3), 197--222.
PHYLOGENETIC POSITION OF TWO PATAGONIAN CIBICIDIDAE
Cibicidoides dispars and Cibicidoides variabilis are two neritic cibicidids commonly found on the Patagonian coasts. Phylogenetic analyses of partial SSU rDNA sequences show that they both belong to the genus Cibicidoides. Cibicidoides dispars branches close to Cibicidoides wuellerstorfi, whereas C. variabilis clusters with Cibicidoides pachyderma. In both cases, species clustering together are well separated morphologically and ecologically but close genetically. Molecular data indicate clearly that C. dispars and C. variabilis are well separated genetically from Cibicidoides lobatulus, another shallow water cibicidid sharing a similar ecology and morphology. Moreover, our molecular results show that neritic and bathyal or abyssal species are found together in different clades, suggesting multiple colonization events from shallow to deep water or vice versa. The analysis of more variable ITS rDNA region, on the other hand, reveals small differences between individuals of C. variabilis sampled in the south and north of Chilean Patagonia, which could indicate a cryptic speciation undergoing in this species. (ABSTRACT)
Schweizer, M., Fontaine, D., Pawlowski, J., 2011. Phylogenetic position of two Patagonian Cibicididae (Rotaliida, Foraminifera): Cibicidoides dispars (d’Orbigny, 1839) and Cibicidoides variabilis (d’Orbigny, 1826). Revue de Micropaléontologie, doi:10.1016/j.revmic.2011.03.002
RECOVERY OF ECOSYSTEM AFTER THE P/T MASS EXTINCTION
High-resolution sampling of more than 10,000 microfossils from seven Late Permian–Middle Triassic paleoequatorial sections in south China refutes claims for a 5 m.y. recovery delay after the end-Permian mass extinction. We show that level-bottom seafloor diversity began to recover in the early Smithian, little more than 1 m.y. after the mass extinction, while recovery of reef-building metazoans began 4 m.y. later, in the Anisian. A further mass extinction in the late Smithian, identified in the pelagic fossil record, is weakly manifest as a temporary pause in diversification among benthic communities. In the Early Triassic of south China, the offshore diversity increase began before then, in shallower settings. The recovery from the end-Permian mass extinction in south China was therefore significantly more rapid and environmentally more complex than hitherto known. (ABSTRACT)
Song,H., Wignall,P.B.,Chen, Z-Q.,Tong, J., Bond, D.P.G., Lai, X., Zhao, X., Jiang, H., Yan, C., Niu, Z., Chen, J., Yang, H.,Wang, Y., 2011. Recovery tempo and pattern of marine ecosystems after the end-Permian mass extinction. Geology 39 (8), 739--742.
INNOVATIVE USE OF FORAMINIFERA IN ECOTOXICOLOGY
Benthic foraminifera are more and more used as bioindicators of anthropogenic impact in marine environments. In order to increase their potential in bio-monitoring studies, we have developed a chronic bioassay method. We incubated foraminifera for 30 days in natural seawater with different concentrations of cadmium, Fuel Oil no. 2 and two types of drilling muds. Foraminiferal activity in the different experimental setups was evaluated using observations of pseudopodal activity after the 30 days incubation period, and a quantification of newly built chambers. All experiments were conducted in a solution of calcein in natural seawater, so that at the end of the experiment, foraminiferal tests with newly added calcareous chambers could be recognised with an epifluorescence microscope. The first results show that foraminifera have a strong physiological response to a 30-day incubation with high concentrations of all tested pollutants. This response clearly varies in function of the concentrations of the added pollutants. It appears that NABM (non aqueous based mud) has a higher toxicity than WBM (water based mud). (ABSTRACT)
Denoyelle, M., Geslin, E., Jorissen, F.J., Cazes, L.,Galgani, F., 2011. Innovative use of foraminifera in ecotoxicology: A marine chronic bioassay for testing potential toxicity of drilling muds. Ecological Indicators, doi:10.1016/j.ecolind.2011.05.011
SUBTROPICAL GYRE CIRCULATION DURING THE MID-PIACENZIAN WARM PERIOD
...... In order to improve spatial coverage of the PRISM faunal data set in the low and mid-latitude North Atlantic, this study provides a description of the MP planktic foraminifer assemblage from five Ocean Drilling Program sites (951, 958, 1006, 1062, and 1063) in the subtropical gyre, a region critical to Atlantic Ocean circulation and tropical heat advection. ......
Research highlights ► This study analyzes the planktic foraminifer assemblage of the North Atlantic subtropical gyre during the mid-Piacenzian warm period. ► North Atlantic low and mid-latitude planktic foraminifer faunal provinces were shifted 5-10° N. ► Competition between species contributed to changes in population structure. ► Sea surface temperature estimates and biogeographic shifts suggest more vigorous gyre circulation and northward heat transport. (ABSTRACT)
Lutz, B.P., 2011. Shifts in North Atlantic planktic foraminifer biogeography and subtropical gyre circulation during the mid-piacenzian warm period. Marine Micropaleontology,
PALEOCENE PLANKTIC FORAMINIFERAL TAXONOMY, PALEOECOLOGY AND BIOSTRATIGRAPHY
Danian-Selandian (D-S) planktic foraminiferal taxonomy and paleoecology, including the most problematic index-species of biochronological schemes, are here revised based on qualitative and quantitative data from the Caravaca and Zumaia sections, Spain. As a first step the morphological and microtextural diagnostic characters are revised in order to achieve appropriate morphological distinctions of the investigated species. The analysis of latitudinal preferences of the planktic foraminiferal species deduced from a comparison of their relative abundances at Caravaca (western Tethyan subtropical waters) and Zumaia (central North Atlantic warm temperate waters) in suite with a statistical comparison of quantitative stratigraphic distributions of the species at Caravaca have shown several divergences in their patterns of spatio-temporal distribution (i.e., in their latitudinal preferences and quantitative stratigraphic distributions). This analysis allowed taxonomical separation of 41 species from the following genera: Eoglobigerina, Subbotina, Parasubbotina, Globanomalina, Luterbacheria, Acarinina, Igorina, Morozovella, Praemurica, Chiloguembelina, and Zeauvigerina. ...... (ABSTRACT)
Arenillas, I., in press. Patterns of spatio-temporal distribution as criteria for the separation of planktic foraminiferal species across the Danian-Selandian transition in Spain. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, doi:10.4202/app.2009.0060
EXAMPLE OF ISOMORPHISM BETWEEN AGGLUTINATED AND PLANKTONIC FORAMINIFERA
We report the occurrence of two new species of the new agglutinated foraminiferal genus Ammogloborotaloides in the Miocene of western Venezuela. These two taxa have been assigned informal names and have been known to the petroleum industry in Venezuela for many years, but have never been described. A. truncatulinoidiformis n. sp. is the type species and the second species, A. sp. 16, is left in open nomenclature. The two species of Ammogloborotaloides are strongly isomorphic with the planktonic foraminiferal species Globorotalia truncatulinoides and Globorotalia crassaformis, and illustrate the possible evolutionary connections between agglutinated benthics and the planktonic foraminifera. (ABSTRACT)
Kaminski, M.A., Contreras, J., 2011. The new foraminiferal genus Ammogloborotaloides n. gen. and subfamily Ammogloborotaloidinae n. subfam. from the Neogene of Venezuela: an example of isomorphism between agglutinated and planktonic Foraminifera. Journal of Micropalaeontology 30 (1), 11--16.
TERMS TO DESCRIBE THE TRANSITION FROM MULTISERIAL TO UNISERIAL ARRANGEMENT
We define terms used to describe the transition from a trochospiral, multiserial or biserial chamber arrangement to a uniserial chamber arrangement in benthic foraminifera. The morphological transition from a trocho-, multi- or biserial to a uniserial chamber arrangement may be abrupt, or form a morphological progression through transitional stages defined as ‘loosely biserial’, ‘lax-uniserial’ and, finally, ‘loosely uniserial’. The precise meanings of the intermediate stages ending in uniseriality are defined here by means of examples using foraminiferal models. We introduce the new terms ‘Cryptobiserial’, ‘Cryptotriserial’ and ‘Cryptotrochospiral’ to describe the chamber arrangement in genera with uniserial stages that preserve the sense of coiling of the previous trochospiral, triserial or biserial stages. (ABSTRACT)
Kaminski, M.A., Cetean, C.G., Tyszka, J., 2011. Nomenclature to describe the transition from multiserial to uniserial chamber arrangement in benthic foraminifera. Journal of Micropalaeontology 30 (1), 7--10.
CRETACEOUS THECAMOEBIANS FROM THE ARABIAN PENINSULA
...... These thecamoebians were found in Cretaceous formations in association with typical Cretaceous spore, pollen and dinoflagellate cysts. Since the youngest rock formation in this drill-hole is of Cretaceous age, contamination due to caving from post-Cretaceous sediments is thus ruled out. Although the oldest record of thecamoebians comes from Neoproterozoic strata, their pre-Holocene occurrences are rare and patchy. Since many thecamoebian tests are autogenous and are made of acid-resistant proteinaceous material, they occur in the palynological preparations of fossil sediments. It is suggested that careful observation and search for thecamoebians in palynological slides could potentially lead to new discoveries of these microfossils from Phanerozoic sediments from all over the world. (ABSTRACT)
Kumar, A., 2011. Acid-resistant Cretaceous thecamoebian tests from the Arabian Peninsula: a suggestion for study of agglutinated rhizopods in palynological slides. Journal of Micropalaeontology 30 (1), 1--5.
DISTRIBUTION OF AGGLUTINATED FORAMINIFERA IN NW EUROPEAN SEAS
...... This paper provides a synthesis of previous work on 261 samples and provides new data on a further 87 samples. Investigated environments range from marginal marine marshes and estuaries through fjord and shelf seas to deep sea. The pattern of species diversity in ATAs follows the same pattern as that for ODAs and living assemblages: there is a progressive increase in diversity from marginal marine to deep sea. Because agglutinated foraminifera are normally only a small component of ODAs, the ATAs provide a much more reliable guide to species and generic distributions. Although the faunal distribution patterns are well defined in terms of broad environment, it has proved difficult to account for individual distributions using the available data on abiotic environmental factors. In NW European seas, Miliammina is confined to intertidal to shallow subtidal marginal marine environments but elsewhere it is common on deep shelves (e.g., off Antarctica). In summary where evolution can not explain the absence of calcareous taxa, ATAs fill the no-analogue gap and provide baseline data that can be used to interpret the ecology of fossil agglutinated assemblages. (ABSTRACT)
Murray, J.W., Alve,E., 2011. The distribution of agglutinated foraminifera in NW European seas: Baseline data for the interpretation of fossil assemblages. Palaeontologia Electronica 14 (2), 14A:41p; palaeo-electronica.org/2011_2/248/index.htm
A GEOGRAPHIC TEST OF SPECIES SELECTION DURING THE K/Pg MASS EXTINCTION
Species selection has received a great deal of theoretical attention but it has rarely been empirically tested. It is important to determine the level of selection that operated during a particular extinction event because it can help distinguish between traits that were actually responsible for extinction and those that were merely correlated with it. Here, we present a test that can help distinguish between organismal and species-level selection, which we demonstrate using the high-resolution fossil record of planktonic foraminifera species recorded in deep-sea sediment cores. Our test examines the fate of survivors and victims during the Cretaceous/Paleogene (K/Pg) mass extinction within single geographic regions, where all individuals experience the same selection pressures. Selection at the organismal level implies that individual members of surviving species are more fit than those of victimized species, and therefore should be more likely to survive in affected areas; conversely, selection at the species level implies individuals will suffer equally within an affected area. ...... (ABSTRACT)
Powell, M.G., MacGregor, J., 2011. A geographic test of species selection using planktonic foraminifera during the Cretaceous/Paleogene mass extinction. Paleobiology 37 (3), 426--437.
TEMPO AND MODE OF RECOVERY FROM THE END-PERMIAN MASS EXTINCTION
...... In this study, we document Early and Middle Triassic trends in taxonomic diversity, assemblage evenness, and size distribution of benthic foraminifers on an exceptionally exposed carbonate platform in south China. We observe gradual increases in all metrics through Early Triassic and earliest Middle Triassic time, with stable values reached early in the Anisian. There is little support in our data set for a substantial Early Triassic lag interval during the recovery of foraminifers or for a stepwise recovery pattern. The recovery pattern of foraminifers on the GBG corresponds well with available global data for this taxon and appears to parallel that of many benthic invertebrate clades. Early Triassic diversity increase in foraminifers was more gradual than in ammonoids and conodonts. However, foraminifers continued to increase in diversity, size, and evenness into Middle Triassic time, whereas diversity of ammonoids and conodonts declined. These contrasts suggest decoupling of recovery between benthic and pelagic environments ...... (ABSTRACT)
Payne, J.L., Summers, M., Rego, B.L., Altiner, D., Wei, J., Yu, M., Lehrmann, D.J., 2011. Early and Middle Triassic trends in diversity, evenness, and size of foraminifers on a carbonate platform in south China: implications for tempo and mode of biotic recovery from the end-Permian mass extinction. Paleobiology 37 (3), 409--425.
RE-ASSESSMENT OF MORPHOGROUP MODEL
Morphogroups offer a way of overcoming taxonomic differences and thereby making comparisons between assemblages of different geological ages. ...... New data from > 400 samples from marsh to deep sea are used here to refine the model by providing the range of abundance of each morphogroup in each environment. It is shown that this range of variation is great so that there is considerable overlap between environments. Nevertheless, the mean values show patterns of distribution. ...... these trends have application to palaeoecology of similar well-oxygenated temperate environments. (ABSTRACT)
Murray, J.W., Alve, E., Jones,B.W., in press. A new look at modern agglutinated benthic foraminiferal morphogroups: their value in palaeoecological interpretation. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2011.06.006
OLIGOHALINE TIMASAH POND, ISRAEL
Highlights ► Timash pond, remnant of Kabara swamp, is olighohaline (3psu) and isothermal (24 °C) ► Cyprideis torosa (ostracod) and 15 species of previous termforaminiferanext term live in low numbers ► 10 calcareous species occur due to high Ca and HCO3 concentration (karstic aquifer) ► Foraminifera occur throughout topmost 4 cm, C. torosa top 1st cm ► Agglutinants dominate the living assemblage and calcareous the dead assemblage (ABSTRACT)
Flako-Zaritsky, S., Almogi-Labin, A., Schilman, B., Rosenfeld,A.,Benjamini,C., in pres. The environmental setting and calcareous microfauna of the oligohaline Timsah pond, Israel: The last remnant of the Kabara swamps . Marine Micropaleontology, doi:10.1016/j.marmicro.2011.06.002
SEASONALITY AND DEPTH DISTRIBUTION OF Hastigerinella digitata
We investigated the habitat depth and population dynamics of mesopelagic foraminifera in Monterey Bay, California, using 12 yr of video surveys and specimens from live collections. ...... Our observations provide a modern calibration for understanding fossil digitate planktonic foraminifera. We observed numerous copepods in various stages of ingestion on the spines of H. digitata and a conspicuous lack of detritus attached to the spine network, providing support for the hypothesis that H. digitata is an obligate carnivore. H. digitata populations did not show the strong two-phase seasonality that characterizes the population dynamics of many mesopelagic species that live above the Monterey Canyon, although H. digitata was generally more abundant in cooler waters on seasonal and interannual timescales. (ABSTRACT)
Hull., P.M., Osborn, K.J., Norris, R.D., Robinson, B.H., 2011. Seasonality and depth distribution of a mesopelagic foraminifer, Hastigerinella digitata, in Monterey Bay, California. Limnology and Oceanography 56 (2), 562-576.
ESTIMATION OF DIVERGENCE TIMES IN FORAMINIFERA
...... we used a Bayesian method to estimate divergence times in Foraminifera, a group of unicellular eukaryotes, known for their excellent fossil record but also for the high evolutionary rates of their genomes. Based on multigene data we reconstructed the phylogeny of Foraminifera and dated their origin and the major radiation events. Our estimates suggest that Foraminifera emerged during the Cryogenian (650-920 Ma, Neo-Proterozoic), with a mean time around 770 Ma, about 220 Myr before the first appearance of reliable foraminiferal fossils in sediments (545 Ma). Most dates are in agreement with the fossil record, but in general our results suggest earlier origins of foraminiferal orders. ...... (ABSTRACT)
Groussin, M., Pawlowski, J.,Yang,Z.,in press. Bayesian Relaxed Clock Estimation of Divergence Times in Foraminifera. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2011.06.008
Mg/Ca IN FORAMINIFERA FROM PLANKTON TOWS AND CORE TOPS
...... Mg/Ca ratios have been measured in 8 species of planktic foraminifera (non-globorotaliids Globigerina bulloides, Neogloboquadrina incompta, Orbulina universa, Globigerinoides ruber (white) and G. sacculifer, and globorotaliids Globorotalia inflata, G. hirsuta and G. truncatulinoides), collected live from the North Atlantic, the Southeast Atlantic, the Northeast Pacific and the Norwegian Sea. ...... salinity may have an important influence on Mg/Ca of some species even in non-extreme salinity environments. This is the first extensive multispecific plankton tow Mg/Ca data set from different oceanographic regions, which has been used to test the Mg/Ca temperature proxy in the context of published calibration data, highlighting the complex physiological/ecological controls on the acquisition of the proxy signal. (ABSTRACT)
Martinez-Boti, M.A., Mortyn, P.G., Schmidt, D.N., Vance, D., Field, D.B., 2011. Mg/Ca in foraminifera from plankton tows: Evaluation of proxy controls and comparison with core tops. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 307 (1-2), 113-125.
LATE CRETACEOUS PALAEOBATHYMETRIC TRENDS IN THE SW BARENTS SEA
The Late Cretaceous foraminiferal assemblages from five wells drilled in the southwestern Barents Sea were analysed using morphogroup analysis in order to understand the palaeoenvironment and palaeobathymetry of the study area. ...... A shallowing regional bathymetry in the southwestern Barents Sea is indicated by the general decreasing trend in the relative abundance of tubular forms and the species diversity of assemblages, which reflects the regional Late Cretaceous–Paleocene uplift prior to the break-up of the Greenland–Norwegian Sea. Changes in the relative abundance of morphogroups and in the main constituent in the cumulative length of tubular taxa from Rhizammina to Rhabdammina near the top of Kveite Formation agree with the possible existence of bottom water currents. (ABSTRACT)
Setoyama, E., Kaminski, M.A., Tyszka, J., 2011. The Late Cretaceous–Early Paleocene palaeobathymetric trends in the southwestern Barents Sea — Palaeoenvironmental implications of benthic foraminiferal assemblage analysis. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2011.04.021
EXTINCT FORAMINIFER ENDEMIC TO SEEPS?
...... Numerous species of foraminifera (shelled protists) also live around hydrocarbon seeps, but none have been found that are endemic to this environment. An extinct species of benthic foraminifera (Amphimorphinella butonensis) has been found in large numbers in a 15-m-diameter patch of siltstone surrounding a Miocene concretionary carbonate mound (inferred to be a fossil methane seep) in New Zealand. The tests exhibit highly negative δ13C values, consistent with a methane-rich environment of recrystallization on or just below the seafloor. This extremely rare species has been recorded only once before, from asphalt-impregnated Miocene muddy limestone in Indonesia, most likely also associated with hydrocarbon seepage. Is this the first record of a foraminiferal species that was specifically adapted, and endemic, to hydrocarbon seep environments? (ABSTRACT)
Hayward, B.W., Gregory, M.R., Kennett, J.P., 2011. An extinct foraminifer endemic to hydrocarbon seeps?. Geology 39 (6), 603-605.
NEW TYPE OF TEST WALL IN HETEROHELICIDS
The first Cretaceous serial planktic foraminifer (family Heterohelicidae Cushman, 1927) with simple-ridged test wall is reported from the uppermost Santonian-lower Campanian sediments of the Deep Sea Drilling Project Site 463 (Mid-Pacific Mountains, equatorial Central Pacific). Hendersonites pacificus n. sp. is characterized by the reduced ornamentation over the last pairs of chambers and strong peripheral costae lining the periphery with test wall flexure. This species evolved from H. carinata (Cushman, 1938) of the upper Santonian-Campanian, a frequently reported species from the Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico and Western Tethyan Realm. (ABSTRACT)
Georgescu,M.D., 2011. A new type of test wall in the Late Cretaceous (Late Santonian-Campanian) heterohelicid planktic foraminifera. Revue de Micropaléontologie 54 (2), 105-114.
OAE2 IN SHALLOW SHELF SEQUENCES OF NE EGYPT
...... Planktic and benthic foraminiferal faunas are characterized by dysoxic, brackish and mesotrophic conditions, as indicated by low species diversity, low oxygen and low salinity tolerant planktic and benthic species, along with oyster-rich limestone layers. In these subtidal to inner neritic environments the OAE2 δ13C excursion appears comparable and coeval to that of open marine environments. However, in contrast to open marine environments where anoxic conditions begin after the first δ13C peak and end at or near the Cenomanian–Turonian boundary, in shallow coastal environments anoxic conditions do not appear until the early Turonian. This delay in anoxia appears to be related to the sea-level transgression that reached its maximum in the early Turonian, as observed in shallow water sections from Egypt to Morocco.
El-Sabbagh, A., Tantawy, A.A., Keller,G.,Khozyem, H., Spangenberg, J.,Abatte, T., Gertsch,B.,in press. Stratigraphy of the Cenomanian–Turonian Oceanic Anoxic Event OAE2 in shallow shelf sequences of NE Egypt. Cretaceous Research, doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2011.04.006
ENCRUSTING FORAMINIFERA ALONG A CARBONATE PLATFORM-SLOPE GRADIENT
...... Results indicate that calcifying foraminifera were the first to colonize experimental molluscan substrates within the first year in shallow habitats, with colonization offshore in subsequent years. Agglutinated foraminifera become more common after one year. Species richness (α diversity) remained relatively similar throughout the study, but species turnover (β diversity) was greatest within the first year and between the shelf/slope break and deeper water, following the thermocline and photic zone regions. ...... Some encrusting foraminifera are invasive, settling in high numbers within the first year, and increasing their abundance through the duration of the experiment. ......
Walker,S.E., Parsons-Hubbard, K.,Richardson-White, S., Brett,C., Powell, E.,in press. Alpha and beta diversity of encrusting foraminifera that recruit to long-term experiments along a carbonate platform-to-slope gradient: Paleoecological and paleoenvironmental implications. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2011.04.028
RESPONSE OF EOCENE DWAF TO RECURRET VOLCANIC EVENTS
Lower Eocene sediments of the Subsilesian Unit of the Polish Carpathians contain bentonite layers that were deposited in a deep-water basinal environment. ...... Foraminiferal assemblages collected from bentonites are impoverished, display smaller test size, are dominated by a single opportunistic taxon, and have lower numbers of suspension feeders in comparison with assemblages surrounding sediments. In addition, bentonite assemblages show a test composition comprised of white fine-grained quartz, and include a greater number of juvenile forms with test abnormalities. ...... After each ash fall event a kill layer was formed, and settled by an opportunistic foraminiferal group dominated by specimens of the epifaunal Glomospira charoides, leading to the formation of nearly monospecific foraminiferal assemblages. ...... Following the deposition of volcanic ash, a relatively quick recovery of the foraminiferal community structure took place, and changes in the foraminiferal community proceeded each time according to the same sequence.
Waśkowska, A.,in press. Response of Early Eocene deep-water benthic foraminifera to volcanic ash falls in the Polish Outer Carpathians: Palaeocological implications . Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 305 (1-4), 50-64.
SHORELINE FORAMINIFERAL THANATACOENOSES AROUND CARIBBEAN ISLANDS
Foraminiferal thanatacoenoses were examined around five islands in the Caribbean Sea, which forms a single biogeographic province with respect to nearshore (<3 m water depth) foraminifera,next term which live primarily on marine vegetation. ...... Cluster and principal components analyses distinguished the following environments (indicator species in parentheses):
1. Sediment associated with mangroves (Ammonia sobrina), 2. Bays subject to organic matter enrichment (Quinqueloculina poeyana, Triloculina rotunda, T. trigonula), 3. Areas subject to moderate sediment flux during storms (Quinqueloculina auberiana, Nodobaculariella mexicana, Peneroplis proteus, Archaias angulatus), 4. Locations subject to high sediment flux during storms (Amphistegina gibbosa), 5. Sites little stressed by organic matter enrichment or storms (Discorbis rosea). ......
Wilson,B., Wilson, J.,2011. Shoreline foraminiferal thanatacoenoses around five eastern Caribbean islands and their environmental and biogeographic implications. Continental Shelf Research 31 (7-8), 857-866.