RECENT PUBLICATIONS ON FORAMINIFERA 2011 (2)

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RECENT PUBLICATIONS ON FORAMINIFERA | 2013 (1) | 2012 (6) | 2012 (5) | 2012 (4) | 2012 (3) | 2012 (2) | 2012 (1) | 2011 (5) | 2011 (4) | 2011 (3) | 2011 (2) | 2011 (1) | 2010

DANIAN-SELANDIAN BENTHIC FORAMINIFERAL BIOSTRATIGRAPHY OF WESTERN SIBERIA

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Danian and Selandian successions in western Siberia are rich in calcareous benthic foraminifers. The assemblages with a constant systematic composition that have the widest lateral occurrence are distinguished as foraminiferal zones. The Brotzenella praeacuta Zone was established in the low-carbonate, clayey beds that form the transition from the Gankinskaya Suite to the Talitskaya Suite. These transitional beds are assigned to the Danian. The calcareous benthic foraminifers in this zone occur mainly together with agglutinated forms. The zone is traced along the areas of the largest subsidence of the Mesozoic-Cenozoic basin, principally in depressions. The transition from the Cretaceous to the Palaeogene is represented by a continuous succession, in which the Danian deposits escaped from erosion and were found to contain the B. praeacuta assemblage. ......

(ABSTRACT)


Podobina, V., 2011. The Danian and Selandian calcareous benthic foraminiferal assemblages and biostratigraphy of Western Siberia. Geologos 17 (2), 97--110.


REVISED TAXONOMIC AND PHYLOGENERIC CONCEPT OF Globigerinoides ruber

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...... The remaining two genetic types of G. ruber (white), labelled as Types IIa and IIb, represent a distinct phylogenetic lineage (G. ruber sensu lato), closer related to Globigerinoides conglobatus. Here we combine molecular clock and morphometric analyses to shed light on the taxonomical and phylogenetic significance of the presence of these two distinct lineages within the morphotaxon G. ruber. ...... Our results suggest that specimens of Type IIa that represent the G. ruber sensu lato lineage are morphologically identical to the concept of the G. ruber sensu lato morphotype in recent literature, and that these morphotypes are consistent with the species definition of Globigerinoides elongatus. We therefore propose that the name G. elongatus (sensu d'Orbigny) should be reinstated and used for the genetic Type IIa. The name G. ruber (sensu d'Orbigny) should be reserved for specimens of the pink chromotype. Specimens of Types Ia, Ib and Ib2 require new species names, but our data are not sufficient to provide a morphological character separating these species from their sister G. ruber (pink), other than by their shell colouration. (ABSTRACT)


Aurahs, R., Treis, Y., Darling, K., Kucera, M., 2011. A revised taxonomic and phylogenetic concept for the planktonic foraminifer species Globigerinoides ruber based on molecular and morphometric evidence. Marine Micropaleontology 79 (1–2), 1-14.


Mg/Ca and ∂18O in Hayalinea balthica

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Core top samples from Indonesian and northeast Atlantic depth transects were used to calibrate Mg/Ca and δ18O in tests of the calcitic benthic foraminifer Hyalinea balthica to bottom water temperature between 4°C and 13°C. This shallow infaunal species is primarily abundant in neritic to upper bathyal sediments (<600 m). Both linear and exponential calibrations suggest a temperature sensitivity of ∼12% per °C that is ∼4 times higher than observed in other species of deep-sea benthic foraminifera. Culture experiments support the core top calibration. ...... We propose that the relatively high Mg content and temperature sensitivity of H. balthica might be due to minor, biologically mediated contribution of high-Mg calcite to the primarily low Mg calcite test, which is influenced by the ambient temperature. This hypothesis, if correct, suggests that benthic species with relatively high Mg/Ca may be better suited for deepwater temperature reconstructions than species that have thus far been more commonly used. (ABSTRACT)


Rosenthal, Y., Morley, A., Barras, C., Katz, M. E., Jorissen, F., Reichart, G-J., Oppo, D. W., Linsley, B. K., 2011. Temperature calibration of Mg/Ca ratios in the intermediate water benthic foraminifer Hyalinea balthica. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 12, Q04003, doi:10.1029/2010GC003333


EUKARYOTIC RICHNESS IN THE ABYSS

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...... Here, we examined the richness of eukaryotic DNA in deep Arctic and Southern Ocean samples using massively parallel sequencing of the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) V9 hypervariable region. ...... By clustering sequences having up to 3 differences, we observed from 942 to 1756 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) per sample. Taxonomic analyses of these OTUs showed that DNA of all major groups of eukaryotes is represented at the deep-sea floor. The dinoflagellates, cercozoans, ciliates, and euglenozoans predominate, contributing to 17%, 16%, 10%, and 8% of all assigned OTUs, respectively. Interestingly, many sequences represent photosynthetic taxa or are similar to those reported from the environmental surveys of surface waters. Moreover, each sample contained from 31 to 71 different metazoan OTUs despite the small sample volume collected. This indicates that a significant faction of the eukaryotic DNA sequences likely do not belong to living organisms, but represent either free, extracellular DNA or remains and resting stages of planktonic species. ...... In view of our study, the deep-sea floor appears as a global DNA repository, which preserves genetic information about organisms living in the sediment, as well as in the water column above it. ...... (ABSTRACT)


Pawlowski, J., Christen, R., Lecroq, B., Bachar, D., Shahbazkia, H. R., Amaral-Zettler, L., Guillou, L., 2011. Eukaryotic Richness in the Abyss: Insights from Pyrotag Sequencing. PLoS ONE 6 (4): e18169. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0018169


XENOPHYOPHORES FROM THE NAZARÉ CANYON

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Xenophyophores are abundant on a terrace of the lower Nazaré Canyon (4300 m water depth) on the Portuguese margin. Here, the most abundant species, Reticulammina cerebreformis sp. nov., occurs in densities of up to 21 individuals per m2. ...... The second species at the 4300-m site, Nazareammina tenera gen. et sp. nov., is much less common. ...... Also common at this deep site are clusters, with a maximum diameter up to 10 cm or occasionally more, of irregular tubes belonging to Aschemonella ramuliformis Brady 1884, a species previously known mainly from isolated tubes. ...... Almost complete SSU rDNA gene sequences obtained from A. ramuliformis and R. cerebreformis confirm that these xenophyophores are foraminifera. Together with two previously sequenced xenophophores (Shinkaia lindsayi Lecroq, Gooday, Tsuchiya, Pawlowski 2009 and Syringammina corbicula Richardson 2001), and the foraminiferan Rhizammina algaeformis, they constitute a clade within the radiation of monothalamous foraminifera. In situ photographs of R. cerebreformis and A. ramuliformis reveal no evidence of pseudopodia deployed onto the sediment surface. Instead, these species probably trap sediment within their complex, folded test surface (R. cerebreformis) or intercept suspended particles (A. ramuliformis). (ABSTRACT)


Gooday, A. J., da Silva, A. A., Pawlowski, J., in press. Xenophyophores (Rhizaria, Foraminifera) from the Nazaré Canyon (Portuguese margin, NE Atlantic). Deep Sea Research II, doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2011.04.005


SARMATIAN–PANNONIAN PALAEOENVIRONMENTAL CHANGES

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The Sarmatian-Pannonian transition has been investigated in Section A of Oarba de Mures in the central Transylvanian Basin. Micropaleontological assemblages are diagnostic for different environmental settings and demonstrate a clear zonation, which was used to reconstruct the genetic units. Five stratigraphic sequences were described and subdivided based on the microfossil assemblages. Transgressive intervals were documented by five-chambered and biserial planktonic foraminifera, normal regressions by assemblages with abundant mysid, dasyclads, diatoms, and benthic rotaliid foraminifera, while the forced regressions are characterized by reworking. The Sarmatian-Pannonian boundary (11.3 Ma) is clearly documented by microfossils and is calibrated with radiometric and magnetostratigraphic data. A new interpretation for the interbasinal correlation is proposed by synchronizing the top of the Central Paratethyan Sarmatian with the top of the Eastern Paratethyan Bessarabian. (ABSTRACT)


Filipescu, S., Wanek, F., Miclea, A., de Leeuw, A., Vasiliev, I., 2011. Micropaleontological response to the changing paleoenvironment across the Sarmatian-Pannonian boundary in the Transylvanian Basin (Miocene, Oarba de Mures section, Romania). Geologica Carpathica 62 (1), 91-102.


PHYLOGENY OF CENOZOIC MACROPERFORATE PLANKTONIC FORAMINIFERA

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We present a complete phylogeny of macroperforate planktonic foraminifer species of the Cenozoic Era (∼65 million years ago to present). The phylogeny is developed from a large body of palaeontological work that details the evolutionary relationships and stratigraphic (time) distributions of species-level taxa identified from morphology (‘morphospecies’). Morphospecies are assigned to morphogroups and ecogroups depending on test morphology and inferred habitat, respectively. Because gradual evolution is well documented in this clade, we have identified many instances of morphospecies intergrading over time, allowing us to eliminate ‘pseudospeciation’ and ‘pseudoextinction’ from the record and thereby permit the construction of a more natural phylogeny based on inferred biological lineages. Each cladogenetic event is determined as either budding or bifurcating depending on the pattern of morphological change at the time of branching. This lineage phylogeny provides palaeontologically calibrated ages for each divergence that are entirely independent of molecular data. The tree provides a model system for macroevolutionary studies in the fossil record addressing questions of speciation, extinction, and rates and patterns of evolution. (ABSTRACT)


Aze, T., Ezard, T. H. G., Purvis, A., Coxall, H. K., Stewart, D. R. M., Wade, B. S., Pearson, P. N., in press. A phylogeny of Cenozoic macroperforate planktonic foraminifera from fossil data. Biological Reviews, DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-185X.2011.00178.x


20TH CENTURY BARENTS SEA WARMING

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...... Climate modelling has also demonstrated that the global warming signal will be amplified in the polar region. Such temperature increases would have important implications on the ecosystem and biota of the Barents Sea. This study therefore aims to reconstruct the climatic changes of the Barents Sea based on benthic foraminifera over approximately the last 1400 years at the decadal to sub-decadal scale. Oxygen and carbon isotope analysis and benthic foraminiferal species counts indicate an overall warming trend of approximately 2.6°C through the 1400-year record. In addition, the well-documented cooling period equating to the ‘Little Ice Age’ is evident between c. 1650 and 1850. Most notably, a series of highly fluctuating temperatures are observed over the last century. An increase of 1.5°C is shown across this period. Thus for the first time we are able to demonstrate that the recent Arctic warming is also reflected in the oceanic micro-fauna. (ABSTRACT)


Wilson, L. J., Hald, M., Godtliebsen, F., in press. Foraminiferal faunal evidence of tewntieth-century Barents Sea warming. The Holocene, doi:10.1177/0959683610385718


CLIMATE CHANGE, SPECIES ECOLOGY & EVOLUTIONARY DYNAMICS

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Ecological change provokes speciation and extinction, but our knowledge of the interplay among the biotic and abiotic drivers of macroevolution remains limited. Using the unparalleled fossil record of Cenozoic macroperforate planktonic foraminifera, we demonstrate that macroevolutionary dynamics depend on the interaction between species’ ecology and the changing climate. This interplay drives diversification but differs between speciation probability and extinction risk: Speciation was more strongly shaped by diversity dependence than by climate change, whereas the reverse was true for extinction. Crucially, no single ecology was optimal in all environments, and species with distinct ecologies had significantly different probabilities of speciation and extinction. The ensuing macroevolutionary dynamics depend fundamentally on the ecological structure of species’ assemblages. (ABSTRACT)


Ezard, T. H. G., Aze, T., Pearson, P. N., Purvis, A., 2011. Interplay Between Changing Climate and Species’ Ecology Drives Macroevolutionary Dynamics. Science 332 (6027), 349–351.


FORAMINIFERA IN A CORAL REEF AQUARIUM

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Live (rose Bengal-stained) benthic foraminifera were studied from one of the largest coral reef aquaria in the world (Burgers’ Ocean, Arnhem, the Netherlands). Benthic foraminifera were unintentionally transported to the aquarium with live rock (i.e., natural reef substratum) from Java and Bali (Indonesia) during initial setup in 2000. After eight years and stabilization of the water chemistry, the foraminifera were found to have successfully colonized this artificial environment. Fifty benthic foraminiferal taxa (>125 µm) were identified in samples from the various subenvironments within the aquarium. The ecological conditions in the aquarium appeared to be optimal for both symbiont-bearing foraminifera and hermatypic corals. Among the four symbiontic foraminiferal species identified, Heterostegina depressa was the most abundant and it was dominant in all samples. Overall, foraminiferal densities in the aquarium were relatively high compared to those in the natural environment emulated. Although foraminifera are not generally recognized as inhabitants of saltwater aquaria, they can play an important ecological role in this type of closed environment. (ABSTRACT)


Ernst, S., Janse, M., Renema, W., Kouwenhoven, T., Goudeau, M-L., Reichart, G-J., 2011. Benthic foraminifera in a large Indo-Pacific coral reef aquarium. The Journal of Foraminiferal Research 41 (2), 101-113.


SPATIAL HOMOGENEITY OF SALT-MARSH FORAMINIFERA

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We collected replicate samples at stations placed systematically along a transect at Oregon Inlet (North Carolina, USA) to investigate spatial homogeneity of dead assemblages of salt-marsh foraminifera. ...... As expected, ANOVA’s on all species indicated significant differences among low-, middle-, and high-marsh zones defined by their flora. No significant differences were found between stations in the low- and high-marsh indicating homogeneity in these zones. In contrast, for all six species in the middle-marsh zone, significant outcomes for ANOVA, cluster analysis and post-hoc comparisons suggested that the middle-marsh should be divided into two zones. In addition, two species exhibited a patchy (inhomogeneous) distribution among all stations in the middle marsh. If confirmed by additional studies, our results indicate that sampling of modern salt-marshes to document the distribution of foraminifera for use in sea-level reconstructions should recognize the spatial variability associated with the middle-marsh floral zone. (ABSTRACT)


Kemp, A. C., Buzas, M. A., Horton, B. P., Culver, S. J., 2011. Influence of patchiness on modern salt-marsh foraminifera used in sea-level studies (North Carolina, USA). The Journal of Foraminiferal Research 41 (2), 114-123.


ECOLOGICAL DISTRIBUTION IN A TIDAL LAGOON–BRACKISH LAKE

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The shallow subtidal to intertidal sandy mudflats of an unusual, 6 km2, alternating tidal lagoon–brackish lake (Lake Onoke, New Zealand) has a remarkably consistent foraminiferal fauna dominated (>80%) by Miliammina fusca. During intervals when the gravel barrier across its mouth is closed, the salinity in the lake declines and the level may rise to 1 m above the extreme astronomical tide level (EHWS) of the sea outside. A transect of samples through and above the salt marsh on the edge of Lake Onoke identifies three elevation-related foraminiferal zones: M. fusca (up to mid tide level, MSL); M. fusca-Trochamminita salsa (MSL to mean high water level, MHW); and T. salsa-Haplophragmoides wilberti (MHW to 1 m above EHWS). This is the first record of foraminiferal faunas living above EHWS in New Zealand. ...... (ABSTRACT)


Hayward, B. W., Grenfell, H. R., Sabaa, A. T., Kay, J., Clark, K., 2011. Ecological distribution of the Foraminifera in a tidal lagoon brackish late, New Zealand, and its Holocene origins. The Journal of Foraminiferal Research 41 (2), 124–137.


LATE JURASSIC FORAMINIFERA, OFFSHORE WESTERN AUSTRALIA

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Foraminifera are recorded from one sample dredged by RV Sonne from 4438–4049 m water depths on the southwestern margin of Wallaby Plateau, eastern Indian Ocean (25.5°S, 108.5°E). An Oxfordian/Kimmeridgian age is estimated based on the foraminiferal fauna, but it conflicts with Early Cretaceous zircon dates that suggest some recycling or mixing during dredging. The Jurassic age is significantly older than any previously known age in the region and predates age estimates for the initiation of seafloor spreading along the Western Australian margin as India departed from Australia/Antarctica during the break-up of Gondwana. ...... It is dominated by Conicospirillina wallabyensis n. sp. (Spirillinacea), Conorboides falveyi n. sp. and Lenticulina muensteri (Roemer, 1839). ...... Descriptions of taxa similar in form to Conicospirillina should be studied under crossed polars to determine whether or not the skeleton has grown in crystallographic continuity. Marginulina suprajurassica Gordon is shown to be pre-occupied. (ABSTRACT)


Quilty, P. G., 2011. Late Jurassic foraminifera, Wallaby Plateau, offshore Western Australia. The Journal of Foraminiferal Research 41 (2), 182–195.


RESPONSE OF BENTHIC FORAMINIFERA TO HEAVY METAL CONTAMINATION

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...... we studied foraminifera and metal concentrations in 72 marine sediment samples, collected from the inner shelf along the Sicilian coast (Gulfs of Palermo and Termini) and on the south-eastern coast of Lampedusa Island. ...... On the basis of pollution sources and foraminiferal assemblages, we recognised different zones in the Gulf of Palermo. The most polluted zones showed high metal concentrations, and low diversity of benthic foraminifera with species typical of stressed environments. By contrast, the lowest polluted zones showed a high population density and the highest percentages of epiphytes. Epiphytes were abundant where a Posidonia oceanica meadow was present and decreased in the most polluted zones. Sediments of the Gulf of Termini and Lampedusa exhibited high percentages of benthic foraminifera typical of well-oxygenated waters and low concentrations of metals, with the exception of sites located near sewage outfalls and harbour areas. Furthermore, even though deformed tests are commonly known in natural stressed environmental conditions, this study shows that in the most polluted zones, benthic foraminifera were characterised by the highest percentages of deformed individuals. (ABSTRACT)


Caruso, A., Cosentino, C., Tranchina, L., Brai, M., 2011. Supratidal foraminifera as ecological indicators in anthropically modified wetlands (Lagoon of Venice, Italy). Chemistry and Ecology 27 (1), 9–30.

SUPRATIDAL FORAMINIFERA IN ANTHROPICALLY MODIFIED WETLANDS

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...... In this study, the Mazzorbo artificial salt marsh, built during the second half of 1999, is considered. On its surface, 16 samples were collected along a transect line in May 2008 to verify the ecological role of this salting within the lagoon ecosystem. The sediment grain size distribution of the salt marsh reflects the dissipative role of the tide and the effect of sediment transport due to the wave and tidal action. However, the presence of only a few Trochammina individuals shows that the foraminiferal fauna did not recognise this morphology as a salt marsh. The lack of Trochammina colonisation can be related to the excessive elevation of the salt marsh surface. This hypothesis is confirmed by the lack of the salt-tolerant plant Spartina. The unsuccessful colonisation by the foraminifera seems to indicate that this artificial salting does not have the natural dynamism of the intertidal morphologies and it may only be classified as land recovery. The supratidal foraminiferal taxa can act as an ecological indicator: through their observation it is possible to verify whether an artificial salt marsh accomplishes its task of functioning as an ecological unit with the community of organisms. (ABSTRACT)


Serandrei-Barbero, R., Donnici, S., Madriardo, F., in press. Supratidal foraminifera as ecological indicators in anthropically modified wetlands (Lagoon of Venice, Italy). Ecological Engineering, doi:10.1016/j.ecoleng.2011.02.009


CARBONIFEROUS-PERMIAN BIOSTRATIGRAPHY AND PALAEOBIOGEOGRAPHY

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Shallow-marine limestones associated to a Palaeotethyan seamount in the Teke Dere unit of the Tavas Nappe (Lycian Nappes, SW Turkey) are essentially latest Moscovian-Kasimovian in age. The wide range of microfauna and -flora of the series show biogeographic affinities comparable to those from the northern Palaeotethyan borders (especially to assemblages from the Carnic Alps, Urals, Donbass and Darvaz). These biogeographic affinities seem to persist until the end of the Early Permian (Artinskian). The Middle Permian fauna is represented by the typical warm, tropical assemblages known at the same time in the Palaeotethys (NW Caucasus, Darvaz, south China, Primorie and Japan), and in the Neotethys (Transcaucasia, central Iran, southern Afghanistan and Sibumasu). The new Kasimovian algae and incertae sedis Novantiellopsis elliottii n. gen. n. sp., Uvanellopsis fluegelii n. gen. n. sp., Tubiphytes rauzerae n. sp. and Asselodiscus davydovi n. sp. are described. (ABSTRACT)


Vachard, D., Moix, P., in press. Late Pennsylvanian to Middle Permian revised algal and foraminiferan biostratigraphy and palaeobiogeography of the Lycian Nappes (SW Turkey): Palaeogeographic implications. Revue de Micropaléontologie, doi:10.1016/j.revmic.2011.02.002


G. menardii cultrata/N. dutertrei ratio and ∂18O

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Core-top samples from the eastern tropical Pacific (10°N to 20°S) were used to test whether the ratio between Globorotalia menardii cultrata and Neogloboquadrina dutertrei abundance (Rc/d) and the oxygen isotope composition (δ18O) of planktonic foraminifera can be used as proxies for the latitudinal position of the Equatorial Front. Specifically, this study compares the δ18O values of eight species of planktonic foraminifera (Globigerinoides ruber sensu stricto (ss) and sensu lato (sl), Globigerinoides sacculifer, Globigerinoides triloba, Pulleniatina obliquiloculata, Neogloboquadrina dutertrei, Globorotalia menardii menardii, Globorotalia menardii cultrata and Globorotalia tumida) with the seasonal hydrography of the region, and evaluates the application of each species or combination of species for paleoceanographic reconstructions. ...... Research Highlights ► This study deals with the micropaleontological location of the equatorial front. ► Abundance ratios of G. cultratal N. dutertrei track the EF latitudinal position. ► Δδ18OG.tumida-G.ruber and Δδ18OG.tumida-P.obliquiloculata are also good proxies. ► Reconstruction of the EF based on single species Δδ18O can be achieved by mapping. (ABSTRACT)


Rincón-Martinez, D., Steph, S., Lamy, F., Mix, A., Tiedemann, R., 2011. Tracking the equatorial front in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean by the isotopic and faunal composition of planktonic foraminifera. Marine Micropaleontology, Vol. 79 (1-2), 24-40. doi:10.1016/j.marmicro.2011.01.001


STABLE ISOTOPES IN MODERN PLANKTONIC FORAMINIFERA

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This study reports on the stable isotopic composition of modern planktonic foraminifera tests collected from plankton tows and sediment trap moorings in the northern South China Sea. Plankton tow samplings were conducted at water depths of 50, 100, and 200 m during various seasons between December 2002 and August 2008. ...... Four common and widely distributed tropical/subtropical planktonic foraminifer species, including Globigerinoides ruber (white variety), Globigerinoides sacculifer (without sac), Neogloboquadrina dutertrei and Pulleniatina obliquiloculata, were analyzed for δ18O and δ13C within narrow shell size ranges and compared with the concurrent sea surface temperature (SST) and wind stress. Our results show that foraminiferal δ18O is primarily influenced by seawater temperature, while δ13C is affected by surface water nutrients, which in this region can be discerned from wind stress data. ...... (ABSTRACT)


Lin, H-L., Sheu, D., D-D., Yang, Y., Chou, W-C., Hung, G-W., in press. Stable isotopes in modern planktonic foraminifera: Sediment trap and plankton tow results from the South China Sea. Marine Micropaleontology, Vol. 79 (1-2), 15-23. doi:10.1016/j.marmicro.2010.12.002


SAME-SPECIMEN MORPHO-GENERIC ANALYSIS OF Truncorotalia truncatulinoides

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Genetic analyses of planktonic foraminifera have unveiled significant levels of cryptic diversity, thus calling into question the usefulness of the morphological species concept for paleoceanographic reconstructions. Here, we present single-specimen combined genetic and morphological analyses performed on living Truncorotalia truncatulinoides collected across the world oceans. A combined morphogenetic analysis allows us to (1) detect five different genetic types (Types I to V) within the morphospecies T. truncatulinoides, (2) statistically analyse shape variations among these genotypes, and (3) assess the biogeographic patterns and the links between surface ocean properties and the distribution of morphological and genetic diversity within T. truncatulinoides. ...... Research Highlights ►Same-specimen genetic and morphological analyses in the foraminifer T. truncatulinoides ►Global scale geographic distribution of the T. truncatulinoides morpho-genotypes ►Genotypes adapted to different water masses exhibit differences in shell morphology ►Morpho-genetic diversity in T. truncatulinoides can be used as a paleoceanographic proxy (ABSTRACT)


Quillévéré, F., Morard, R., Escarguel, G., Douady, C. J., Ujiié, Y., de Garidel-Thoron, T., de Vargas, C., in press. Global scale same-specimen morpho-genetic analysis of Truncorotalia truncatulinoides: A perspective on the morphological species concept in planktonic foraminifera. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2011.03.013


CONTRIBUTIONS OF MOLECULAR PHYLOGENETICS TO FORAMINIFERAL TAXONOMY

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Molecular phylogenetics gives new insights into the taxonomy of foraminifera, independent of their morphology. After a survey of the present knowledge on how molecular phylogeny can contribute to foraminiferal taxonomy, we present an applied example. The comparison of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences belonging to the SSU (Small Subunit) and LSU (Large Subunit) genes of Pseudoeponides falsobeccarii with other similar sequences of rotaliids available in GenBank shows that this species actually belongs to the genus Ammonia, because it groups inside the other Ammonia sequences instead of forming a distinct clade. Moreover, Ammonia falsobeccarii forms a clade well separated from other Ammonia phylotypes, meaning that it can be considered as a distinct species, and not as an ecophenotype of one of the other Ammonia species. (ABSTRACT)


Schweizer, M., Jorissen, F., Geslin, E., in press. Contributions of molecular phylogenetics to foraminiferal taxonomy: General overview and example of Pseudoeponides falsobeccarii Rouvillois, 1974. Computes Rendus Palevol, doi:10.1016/j.crpv.2011.01.003


QUATERNATY PALEOENVIRONMENTS IN THE CENTRAL ALBEMARLE EMBAYMENT

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To understand the temporal and spatial variation of eustatic sea-level fluctuations, glacio-hydro-isostacy, tectonics, subsidence, geologic environments and sedimentation patterns for the Quaternary of a passive continental margin, a nearly complete stratigraphic record that is fully integrated with a three dimensional chronostratigraphic framework, and paleoenvironmental information are necessary. The Albemarle Embayment, a Cenozoic regional depositional basin in eastern North Carolina located on the southeast Atlantic coast of the USA, is an ideal setting to unravel these dynamic, interrelated processes. ...... Research highlights ►Foraminifera, diatoms and pollen as paleoenvironmental indicators. ►Quaternary paleoenvironments range from mid-shelf to fluvial. ►Quaternary sediments reflect eastward progradation of the shelf. ►Marginal marine deposits are preserved only in paleovalleys. (ABSTRACT)


Culver, S. J., Farrell, K. M., Mallinson, D. J., Willard, D. A., Horton, B. P., Riggs, S. R., Thieler, E. R., Wehmiller, J. F., Parham, P., Snyder, S. W., Hillier, C., in press. Micropaleontologic record of Quaternary paleoenvironments in the Central Albemarle Embayment, North Carolina, U.S.A.. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2011.03.004


SPECIES' DELIMITATION IN MULTIDIMENTIONAL MORPHOSPACE

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BACKGROUND The species is a fundamental unit of biological pattern and process, but its delimitation has proven a ready source of argument and disagreement. Here, we discuss four key steps that utilize statistical thresholds to describe the morphological variability within a sample and hence assess whether there is evidence for one or multiple species. Once the initial set of biologically relevant traits on comparable individuals has been identified, there is no need for the investigator to hypothesise how specimens might be divided among groups, nor the traits on which groups might be separated. ...... CONCLUSION By estimating variance robustly (samples containing incipient species are unlikely to be scaled optimally by means and standard deviations) and identifying thresholds relevant to a particular system rather than universal standards, the steps of the framework aim to optimize the chances of delineation without imposing pre-conceived patterns onto estimates of species limits. (ABSTRACT)


Ezard, T. H. G., Pearson, P. N., Purvis, A., 2010. Algorithmic approaches to aid species' delimitation in multidimensional morphospace. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 10 (1), 175, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2148-10-175


MICROHABITATS AND BENTHIC FORAMINIFERAL SHELL GEOCHEMISTRY

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...... A simple, broadly accepted, view is that foraminiferal species’ habitats are vertically stratified in the sediments due to general pore-water chemical gradients, which develop in response to the seabed organic carbon flux. ...... We present an alternate model in which foraminifera select for habitats within the bio-irrigation system of the sediments created by the activities of macro/meio-fauna. Our distributional and geochemical data indicate that foraminiferal species seek particular biotic associations and geochemical conditions within the complex bio-architecture of the sediments and are not tied to particular sediment depths, or the general pore-water chemistry of their apparent habitation zone. Instead, foraminifera inhabit micro-environments with steep oxic to anoxic gradients. This might account for disparities among geochemical tracers.

(ABSTRACT)


Loubere, P., Jacobson, B., Kristensen, D. K., Husum, K., Jernas, P., Richaud, M., in press. The structure of benthic environments and the paleochemical record of foraminifera. Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, doi:10.1016/j.dsr.2011.02.011


SALT-MARSH FORAMINIFERA AS SEA LEVEL PROXY

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This paper aims to establish whether contemporary salt-marsh foraminifera from eastern Tasmanian are suitably related to elevation and can therefore be used to reconstruct past sea levels.

Research Highlights ►Salt-marsh foraminifera can be used to reconstruct sea-level changes in Tasmania. ►Sea-level reconstructions are possible with a precision of ± 0.10 m. ►The foraminifera Trochamminita salsa and Trochamminita irregularis are distinguished. ►WA-PLS regression models are more reliable than PLS regression models. ►Sea-level reconstructions are most precise along microtidal coastlines. (ABSTRACT)


Callard, S. V., Gehrels, W. R., Morrison, B. V., Grenfell, H. R., in press. Suitability of salt-marsh foraminifera as proxy indicators of sea level in Tasmania. Marine Micropaleontology, doi:10.1016/j.marmicro.2011.03.001


Orbulina AND Praeorbulina-LIKE SPECIMENS IN LATE GLACIAL SEDIMENTS

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This study focuses on the exceptionally high occurrence of Orbulina suturalis and morphotypes very close to Praeorbulina in Late Glacial sediments from the Northern Arabian Sea. ...... Our study is based on the analysis of three sediment cores retrieved in the Gulf of Oman (KS01, MD04-2849, MD04-2861), covering the Late Pleistocene (last 30 ka CAL-BP). ...... One AMS 14C date was obtained on a monospecific sample of Praeorbulina-like specimens, giving an age of 19 CAL-ka BP, which confirms the Late Glacial age and unreworked character of this population. In this paper, we discuss the morphological similarities relating the observed Praeorbulina-like specimens to the genera Orbulina and Praeorbulina. We will also discuss the period of occurrence of these specimens and the potential environmental changes that may have caused their atypical morphology.

(ABSTRACT)


Rossignol, L., Eynaud, F., Bourget, J., Zaragosi, S., Fontanier, C., Nadine, E-Z., Lanfumey, V., in press. High occurrence of Orbulina suturalis and “Praeorbulina-like specimens" in sediments of the Northern Arabian Sea during the Last Glacial Maximum. Marine Micropaleontology, doi:10.1016/j.marmicro.2011.01.006


THE UNCERTAINTY OF TAXA RELATIVE ABUNDANCES

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When working with micropaleontological assemblage data it is necessary to accept that the true population can never be quantified fully. Thus, the investigator must count individuals in the hope of obtaining a representative sample and then determine the uncertainty associated with the taxa relative abundances. Such uncertainties can be obtained by assuming that the relative abundances originate from a multinomial distribution for which a confidence region can be obtained using existing statistical methods. For assemblages containing more than three taxa, however, the determination and representation of multinomial confidence regions becomes exceedingly cumbersome. Here we outline a simple method that allows diagnostic values of the multinomial confidence region to be calculated for any number of taxa. Examples of such values are the most extreme relative abundances, which allow the user to quantify the interval of a given taxon within the confidence region and the maximum/minimum values of various diversity indices.

(ABSTRACT)


Heslop, D., De Schepper, S., Proske, U., in press. Diagnosing the uncertainty of taxa relative abundances derived from count data. Marine Micropaleontology, doi:10.1016/j.marmicro.2011.01.007


ENCRUSTING FORAMINIFERA ON EXPERIMENTAL SHELLS

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Encrusting foraminfera that settled on experimental arrays deployed for two years in shelf (15 m-30 m), shelf edge (70 m) and slope (183-253 m) environments off the carbonate platform of Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas, were found to occur in four environmental-indicator guilds, each with common and unique encrusting species. These guilds can be used as paleobathymetric and temporal guides, indicating how long a substrate was exposed on the sea floor prior to burial. Taphonomic signatures of encrusting foraminifera also changed with depth, resulting in four foraminiferal taphofacies that varied from corrasion (dissolution and abrasion) at shallow sites to pristine tests at the deepest sites. ...... Behavioral interactions, such as overgrowth interactions, also varied with depth, and these can be used to examine depth-related paleobehavioral patterns in the past. Thus, the often overlooked encrusting foraminifera are excellent candidates for paleocommunity and paleoenvironmental analyses.

(ABSTRACT)


RICHARDSON-WHITE, S., WALKER, S. E., in press. Diversity, taphonomy and behavior of encrusting foraminifera on experimental shells deployed along a shelf-to-slope bathymetric gradient, lee stocking island, Bahamas . Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2011.02.021


OTTNANGIAN PALAEOENVIRONMENTS IN THE ALPINE FORELAND BASIN

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...... The aim of this study is to explore possible explanations in order to better understand the palaeogeographic, stratigraphic and environmental setting. The study focuses on the Ottnangian (middle Burdigalian) segment of the Upper Marine Molasse in southern Germany, and includes a review of previously published data, together with new data from the borehole Stockhausen which is located between the areas of the Eastern and Western Molasse. Methods include quantitative analysis of benthic foraminiferal assemblages, qualitative studies of planktonic foraminifera and calcareous nannoplankton, as well as palaeoenvironmental considerations based on the actualistic approach. ......

Highlights ►The publication indicates palaeobiogeographic and palaeoenvironmental differences within the North Alpine Foreland Basin during the Ottnangian. ►It is shown that specific palaeoenvironmental zones existed in the North Alpine Foreland Basin during the Ottnangian. ►Furthermore, the new data from the borehole Stockhausen provide the opportunity to correlate the Ottnangian lithostratigraphic units of the Western Molasse with those from the Eastern Molasse. (ABSTRACT)


Pippèrr, M., in press. Characterisation of Ottnangian (middle Burdigalian) palaeoenvironments in the North Alpine Foreland Basin using benthic foraminifera - a review of the Upper Marine Molasse of southern Germany. Marine Micropaleontology, doi:10.1016/j.marmicro.2011.02.002


LATEST CRETACEOUS FORAMINIFERA IN UPWELLING REGION

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The Late Cretaceous succession in Israel is part of an extensive high-productivity upwelling regime that persisted over ~ 20 m.y. in the southern margins of Tethys. ...... The main objective of this study was to reconstruct changes in surface water productivity and seafloor oxygenation during the deposition of the Oil Shale Member (OSM) and transitions with the underlying Phosphate and overlying Marl Members using high-resolution records of planktic and benthic foraminifera and total organic carbon (TOC) content.

Highlights ►This study documents the paleoceanography of the L. Cretaceous Oil Shale, Negev Israel ►The Oil Shale Mbr (OSM) spans between 71.6 -69.85 Ma based on foraminiferal zonation ►5 benthic and planktic foraminiferal assemblages (B and P Types) were distinguished ►Upward changes in B and P Types correlate with a decrease in TOC content ►These changes mark the weakening of the L. Cretaceous Tethyan upwelling system. (ABSTRACT)


Ashckenazi-Polivoda, S., Abramovich, S., Almogi-Labin, A., Schneider-Mor, A., Feinstein, S., Püttmann, W., Berner, Z., in press. Paleoenvironments of the latest Cretaceous oil shale sequence, Southern Tethys, Israel, as an integral part of the prevailing upwelling system. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2011.02.018


RESPONSE OF EOCENE FORAMINIFERA TO VOLCANIC ASH FALL

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Lower Eocene sediments of the Subsilesian Unit of the Polish Carpathians contain bentonite layers that were deposited in a deep-water basinal environment. Foraminiferal assemblages occurring within the bentonites and in the surrounding shales show important differences in taxonomical composition, the proportions of ecological groups, and test composition. ...... bentonite assemblages show a test composition comprised of white fine-grained quartz, and include a greater number of juvenile forms with test abnormalities. The extent of such discrepancies is variable and depends on the thickness of the bentonite layers. ...... After each ash fall event a kill layer was formed, and settled by an opportunistic foraminiferal group dominated by specimens of the epifaunal Glomospira charoides, leading to the formation of nearly monospecific foraminiferal assemblages. ...... Following the deposition of volcanic ash, a relatively quick recovery of the foraminiferal community structure took place, and changes in the foraminiferal community proceeded each time according to the same sequence.

(ABSTRACT)


Waśkowska, A, in press. Response of Early Eocene deep-water benthic foraminifera to volcanic ash falls in the Polish Outer Carpathians: Palaeocological implications. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2011.02.012


FORAMINIFERA FROM THE BLAKE RIDGE AND NEOGEN PALEOCEANOGRAPHY

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Carbon isotope and benthic foraminiferal data from Blake Outer Ridge, a sediment drift in the western North Atlantic (Ocean Drilling Program Sites 994 and 997, water depth ~ 2800 m), document variability in the relative volume of Southern Component (SCW) and Northern Component Waters (NCW) over the last 7 Ma. ...... Benthic foraminiferal assemblages underwent major changes when the sites were dominantly under SCW (3.6-2.4 and 1.2-0.8 Ma), coeval with the ‘Last Global Extinction’ of elongate, cylindrical deep-sea benthic foraminifera, which has been linked to cooling, increased ventilation and changes in the efficiency of the biological pump. These benthic foraminiferal turnovers were neither directly associated with changes in dominant bottom water mass nor with changes in productivity, but occurred during global cooling and increased ventilation of deep waters associated with the intensification of the NHG.

(ABSTRACT)


Bhaumik, A. K., Gupta, A. K., Thomas, E., in press. Blake outer ridge: Late Neogene variability in Paleoceanography and deep-sea biota. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2011.02.004


EFFECT OF OCEAN ACIDIFICATION ON CALCIFICATION

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...... Here we report results of culture experiments performed to assess the effects of ongoing ocean acidification on the calcification of symbiont-bearing reef foraminifers using a high-precision pCO2 control system. Living clone individuals of three foraminiferal species (Baculogypsina sphaerulata, Calcarina gaudichaudii, and Amphisorus hemprichii) were subjected to seawater at five pCO2 levels from 260 to 970 μatm. Cultured individuals were maintained for about 12 weeks in an indoor flow-through system under constant water temperature, light intensity, and photoperiod. After the experiments, the shell diameter and weight of each cultured specimen were measured. ...... Our findings suggest that ongoing ocean acidification might favor symbiont-bearing reef foraminifers with hyaline shells at intermediate pCO2 levels (580 to 770 μatm) but be unfavorable to those with either hyaline or porcelaneous shells at higher pCO2 levels (near 1000 μatm).

(ABSTRACT)


Fujita, K., Hikami, M., Suzuki, A., Kuroyanagi, A., Kawahata, H.,2011. Effects of ocean acidification on calcification of symbiont-bearing reef foraminifers. Biogeosciences Discuss 8, 1809-1829


COLD-WATER CORALS AND FORAMINIFERA ON MUD VOLCANOES

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The Dhaka and Maya mud volcanoes (MVs), located in the Mud Diapir Province in the Western Alboran Basin along the Moroccan Coasts, were cored during the TTR-17, Leg 1 cruise. Cores were taken on the top of the volcanoes at a water depth of 370 m on the Dhaka MV (core TTR17-MS411G) and at 410 m water depth on the Maya MV (core TTR17-MS419G), respectively. ...... During the intervals of coral growth planktonic foraminiferal assemblages were dominated by Neogloboquadrina incompta. The decline of coral ecosystems on the mud volcanoes is accompanied at surface by a shift from the N. incompta dominated assemblage to a Globorotalia inflata dominated assemblage, possibly reflecting more oligotrophic conditions. This shift is coeval to the passage from wet to arid conditions at the end of the African Humid Period at Maya MV. It is interpreted as an effect of an early human impact on a fragile environment, which was already stressed by desiccation at the time of the development of complex human society along the Mediterranean coasts, at Dhaka MV.

(ABSTRACT)


Margreth, S., Gennari, G., Rüggeberg, A., Comas, M. C., Pinheiro, L. M., Spezzaferri, S., in press. Growth and demise of cold-water coral ecosystems on mud volcanoes in the West Alboran Sea: The messages from the planktonic and benthic foraminifera. Marine Geology, doi:10.1016/j.margeo.2011.02.006


EVOLUTION OF THE EARLY SCHUBERTELLID FUSULINIDS

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The types of the species belonging to the fusulinid genera Schubertella and Eoschubertella were examined from publications and type collections. Eoschubertella in general possesses all the features of Schubertella and therefore is a junior synonym of the latter. However, the concept of Eoschubertella best describes the genus Schubertina with its type species Schubertina curculi. Schubertina is closely related to the newly established genus Grovesella the concept of which is emended in this paper. Besides Schubertella, Schubertina, and Grovesella, the genera Mesoschubertella, Biwaella are reviewed and three new species, Grovesella nevadensis, Biwaella zhikalyaki, and Biwaella poletaevi, are described. The phylogenetic relationships of all Pennsylvanian–Cisuralian schubertellids are also proposed. ......

(ABSTRACT)


Davydov, V. I., 2011. Taxonomy, nomenclature, and evolution of the early schubertellid fusulinids. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 56 (1), 181-194.


PALEOCENE-EOCENE LARGER BENTHIC FORAMINIFERA

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The Paleocene–Early Eocene carbonate successions of the Indus Basin in Pakistan formed on the northwestern continental shelf margin of the Indian Plate in the eastern Tethys Ocean. Based on larger benthic foraminifera (LBF), eight Tethyan foraminiferal biozones (SBZ1–SBZ8) spanning the Paleocene to Early Eocene interval are identified. ...... The absence of Nummulites from the earliest Eocene of Pakistan and rarity of Alveolina, elsewhere used as the prime marker for the base of the Eocene, may imply biogeographical barriers between east and west Tethys, perhaps caused by the initial stages of India-Asia collision. Later, at the level of the Eocene SBZ8 Biozone, faunal links were re-established and many foraminifera with west Tethys affinities appeared in east Tethys, suggesting the barriers to migration ceased.

(ABSTRACT)


Afzal, J., Williams, M., Leng, M. J., Aldridge, R. J., Stephenson, M. H., 2010. Evolution of Paleocene to Early Eocene larger benthic foraminifer assemblages of the Indus Basin, Pakistan. Lethaia, DOI: 10.1111/j.1502-3931.2010.00247.x


PaleoBase: DEEP-SEA BENTHIC FORAMINIFERA

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PaleoBase: Deep-Sea Benthic Foraminifera presents the latest taxonomic revision for 300 species in the form of an illustrated, state-of-the-art relational database. Relying primarily on material collected by the Deep-Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) and Ocean Drilling Programme (ODP) for examples of characteristic deep-sea species, and containing over 1,000 colour, digital composite illustrations of unprecendented accuracy, this database represents a significant step forward in the presentation of systematic information in general, and microfossil systematics in particular. For this first time, consistent and reliable information for each species morphology, taxonomy, synonymy, bathymetery, paleoecology, chronostratigraphy, biostratigraphy is summarized in one place and in a searchable format. In addition, the database contains a morphological key for each species and citations to over 350 references from the primary scientific literature.

(DESCRIPTION OF SOFTWARE)


Holbourn, A., Henderson, A., May 2011. PaleoBase: Deep Sea Benthic Foraminifera [Software]. Wiley-Blackwell.


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